Audit Committee Charter


The primary function of the Audit Committee is to assist the Board of Directors in monitoring (1) the integrity of the financial statements of the Company, (2) the qualifications, performance and independence of the independent auditor, (3) the performance of the internal auditors, and (4) the Company’s compliance with regulatory and legal requirements.

The Audit Committee shall prepare the report required by the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) to be included in the Company’s annual proxy statement.


The Audit Committee shall be comprised of three or more directors as determined by the Board, each of whom shall meet the independence and experience requirements of Nasdaq, Section 10A(m)(3) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and the rules and regulations of the SEC. At least one member of the Committee shall be a financial expert as defined by the SEC.

The members of the Audit Committee shall be appointed by the Board on the recommendation of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee. Audit Committee members shall serve at the pleasure of the Board. The members of the Committee shall designate a Chair by majority vote of the full Committee membership.


The Committee shall meet at least four times annually, or more frequently as it determines. As part of its responsibility to foster open communication, the Committee should meet in separate executive sessions at least annually with management, the internal auditors, and the independent accountants to discuss any matters that the Committee or each of these groups believe should be discussed privately. The Audit Committee may request to attend a formal or informal meeting or consultation with any officer or employee of the Company, its internal auditors, independent auditors or outside counsel.


The Audit Committee shall have the sole authority to appoint or replace the independent auditor. The Audit Committee shall be directly responsible for the compensation and oversight of the work of the independent auditor (including resolution of disagreements between management and the independent auditor regarding financial reporting) for the purpose of preparing or issuing an audit report or related work. The independent auditor shall report directly to that Audit Committee.

The Audit Committee shall pre-approve all auditing services and permitted non-audit services (including the fees and terms thereof) to be performed for the Company by its independent auditor, subject to the de minimus exceptions for non-audit services described in Section 10A(i)(1)(B) of the Exchange Act which are approved by the Audit Committee prior to the completion of the audit.

The Audit Committee may form and delegate authority to subcommittees consisting of one or more members when it deems appropriate, including the authority to grant pre-approvals of audit and permitted non-audit services, provided that decisions of such subcommittee shall be presented to the full Audit Committee at its next scheduled meeting.

The Audit Committee shall have the authority, to the extent that it deems it necessary or appropriate, to retain independent legal, accounting or other advisors. The Company shall provide for appropriate funding, as determined by the Audit Committee, for payment of compensation to the independent auditor for the purpose of rendering or issuing an audit report and to any advisors employed by the Audit Committee.

The Audit Committee shall make regular reports to the Board. The Audit Committee shall review this Charter annually and shall recommend any proposed changes to the Board for approval. The Audit Committee shall annually review the performance of the Committee.

To fulfill its responsibilities and duties the Audit Committee shall, to the extent it deems necessary or appropriate:

Financial Statements and Disclosure Matters

1. Review and discuss with management and the independent auditor the annual audited financial statements, including disclosures made in management’s discussion and analysis, and recommend to the Board whether the audited financial statements should be included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K.

2. Review and discuss with management and the independent auditor the Company’s quarterly financial statements prior to the filing of the quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, including the results of the independent auditors review of the quarterly financial statements. The Chair of the Committee may represent the entire Committee for the purposes of this review.

3. Discuss with management and the independent auditor significant financial reporting issues and judgments made in connection with the preparation of the financial statements, including any significant changes in the selection or application of accounting principles, any major issues as to the adequacy of the Company’s internal controls and actions taken in light of any material control deficiencies.

4. Review and discuss quarterly reports from the independent auditor on: (a) all critical accounting policies and practices used; (b) all alternative treatments of financial information within generally accepted accounting principles that have been discussed with management, including the ramifications of the use of such alternative treatments, and the treatment preferred by the independent auditor; and (c) other material written communications between the independent auditor and management, such as any management letter or schedule of unadjusted differences.

5. Discuss with management a draft of the earnings press releases, including any use of “pro-forma” or “adjusted” non-GAAP financial information, as well as any earnings guidance provided to the investing public. Such discussions may be done generally, including the type of information to be disclosed or types of presentations to be made.

6. Discuss with management and the independent auditor the effect on the Company’s financial statements of any regulatory or accounting initiatives or any off-balance sheet structures.

7. Discuss with management the Company’s major financial risk exposures and the steps management has taken to monitor and control such exposures, including the Company’s risk assessment and risk management policies.

8. Discuss with the independent auditor the matters required to be discussed by Statement on Auditing Standards No. 61 relating to the conduct of the audit, including any difficulties encountered in the course of the audit work, any restrictions on the scope of activities or access to requested information, and any significant disagreements with management.

9. Review disclosures made to the Audit Committee by the CEO or CFO during their certification process for the Form 10-K or Form 10-Q about any significant deficiencies in the design or operation of internal controls or material weaknesses therein and any fraud involving management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls.

Oversight of Relationship with Independent Auditor

10. Review and evaluate the lead partner of the independent auditor team.

11. Obtain and review a report from the independent auditor at least annually regarding (a) the independent auditor’s internal quality control procedures, (b) any material issues raised by the most recent internal quality control review, or peer review, of the firm, or by any inquiry of investigation by governmental or professional authorities within the preceding five years respecting one or more independent audits carried out by the firm, (c) any steps taken to deal with such issues, and (d) all relationships between the independent auditor and the Company or its executive officers. Evaluate the qualifications, performance and independence of the independent auditor, including considering whether the auditor’s quality controls are adequate and the provision of any permitted non-audit services is compatible with maintaining the auditor’s independence, in each case taking into account the opinions of management and the independent auditors. The Audit Committee shall present its conclusions with respect to the independent auditor to the Board.

12. Ensure the rotation at the independent auditor firm for the Company’s audit of the lead partner having primary responsibility for the audit and the partner responsible for reviewing the audit at least every five years.

13. Review and approve the hiring by the Company of any employee or former employee of the independent auditor who has participated in any capacity in the Company’s audits, and confirm with management prior to the initiation date of each audit that the Company has not hired any such person in the past year in violation of Section 10A(1) of the Exchange Act.

14. Confirm with members of the independent auditor team whether or not they had any discussions with their national office on matters of audit quality and consistency relating to the Company, and if so discuss such issues with the national office.

15. Meet with the independent auditor prior to the audit to discuss the planning and staffing of the audit.

Oversight of the Internal Audit Function

16. Review the retention and any replacement of the firm providing internal audit services. Review and discuss with management internal staffing plans and/or changes.

17. Review the internal audit function of the Company including the independence and authority of its reporting obligations, the proposed audit plan for the coming year, and the coordination of such plans with the independent auditors and the firm providing internal audit services.

18. Review the significant reports to the Audit Committee or management prepared by the internal auditors and management’s responses.

19. Discuss with the internal auditor and management the internal audit firm responsibilities, budget and staffing and any recommended changes to the planned scope of internal audit projects.

Compliance with Oversight Responsibilities

20. Obtain from the independent auditor assurance that it is not aware of any illegal act required to be reported to the Audit Committee under Section 10A(b) of the Exchange Act.

21. Review and advise the Board with respect to the Company’s policies and procedures regarding compliance with applicable laws and the Company’s Code of Ethics. Obtain exception reports from management, the internal auditor and/or the independent auditor related to any issues or non-compliance with applicable legal requirements and the Company’s Code of Ethics by the Company or its subsidiaries. that are on such terms, which, in the judgment of the Audit Committee, are no less favorable to the Company than could be obtained from unaffiliated parties.

22. Review and approve all related party transactions that are on such terms, which, in the judgment of the Audit Committee, are no less favorable to the Company than could be obtained from unaffiliated parties.

23. Establish procedures for the receipt, retention and treatment of complaints received by the Company regarding accounting, internal accounting controls or auditing matters, and the confidential, anonymous submission by employees of concerns regarding questionable accounting or auditing matters.

24. Discuss with management and the independent auditor any correspondence with regulators or governmental agencies or any published reports, in each case, which raise material issues regarding the Company’s financial statements or accounting policies.

25. Discuss with the Company’s General Counsel legal matters that may have a material impact on the financial statements or the Company’s compliance policies.

Limitation on Audit Committee Role

While the Audit Committee has the responsibilities and powers set forth in this Charter, it is not the duty of the Audit Committee to plan or conduct audits or to determine that the Company’s financial statements and disclosures are complete and accurate and are in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and applicable laws, rules and regulations. These are the responsibilities of management and the independent auditor.

Adopted June 13, 2000, amended March 10, 2004 and March 8, 2005