CRYSTAL RIVER CAPITAL, INC.

ARTICLES OF AMENDMENT AND RESTATEMENT

     FIRST: Crystal River Capital, Inc., a Maryland corporation (the “Corporation”), desires to amend and restate its charter (the “Charter”) as currently in effect and as hereinafter amended.

     SECOND: The following provisions are all the provisions of the Charter currently in effect and as hereinafter amended.

ARTICLE I

NAME

     The name of the corporation (which is hereinafter called the “Corporation”) is:

Crystal River Capital, Inc.

ARTICLE II

PURPOSE

     The purposes for which the Corporation is formed are to engage in any lawful act or activity (including, without limitation or obligation, engaging in business as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) within the meaning of Section 856(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or any successor statute (the “Code”)) for which corporations may be organized under the general laws of the State of Maryland as now or hereafter in force. The foregoing enumerated purposes and objects shall be in no way limited or restricted by reference to, or inference from, the terms of any other clause of this or any other article of the Charter and each shall be regarded as independent; and they are intended to be and shall be construed as powers as well as purposes and objects of the Corporation and shall be in addition to and not in

 


 

limitation of the general powers of corporations under the General Laws of the State of Maryland.

ARTICLE III

RESIDENT AGENT AND PRINCIPAL OFFICE IN MARYLAND

     The address of the principal office of the Corporation in this State is c/o The Corporation Trust Incorporated, 300 East Lombard Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202. The name and address of the resident agent of the Corporation are The Corporation Trust Incorporated, 300 East Lombard Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202. The resident agent is a Maryland corporation.

ARTICLE IV

PROVISIONS FOR DEFINING, LIMITING
AND REGULATING CERTAIN POWERS OF THE
CORPORATION AND OF THE STOCKHOLDERS AND DIRECTORS

     Section 4.1 Number of Directors. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed under the direction of the Board of Directors. The number of directors of the Corporation shall be four, which number may be increased or decreased only by the Board of Directors pursuant to the Bylaws of the Corporation (the “Bylaws”), but shall never be less than the minimum number required by the Maryland General Corporation Law, or any successor statute (the “MGCL”). The directors may increase the number of directors and may fill any vacancy, whether resulting from an increase in the number of directors or otherwise, on the Board of Directors in the manner provided in the Bylaws.

     Beginning on the Initial Date (as hereinafter defined), the directors (other than any director elected solely by holders of one or more classes or series of Preferred Stock) shall be classified, with respect to the terms for which they severally hold office, into three classes, one class to hold office initially for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders in

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of shares entitled to cast a greater number of votes, any such action shall be effective and valid if declared advisable by the Board of Directors and taken or approved by the affirmative vote of holders of shares entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

     Section 4.3 Authorization by Board of Stock Issuance. The Board of Directors may authorize the issuance from time to time of shares of stock of the Corporation of any class or series, whether now or hereafter authorized, or securities or rights convertible into shares of its stock of any class or series, whether now or hereafter authorized, for such consideration as the Board of Directors may deem advisable (or without consideration in the case of a stock split or stock dividend), subject to such restrictions or limitations, if any, as may be set forth in the Charter or the Bylaws.

     Section 4.4 Preemptive Rights and Appraisal Rights. Except as may be provided by the Board of Directors in setting the terms of classified or reclassified shares of stock pursuant to Section 5.4 or as may otherwise be provided by contract approved by the Board of Directors, no holder of shares of stock of the Corporation shall, as such holder, have any preemptive right to purchase or subscribe for any additional shares of stock of the Corporation or any other security of the Corporation which it may issue or sell. Holders of shares of stock shall not be entitled to exercise any rights of an objecting stockholder provided for under Title 3, Subtitle 2 of the MGCL unless the Board of Directors, upon the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board of Directors, shall determine that such rights apply, with respect to all or any classes or series of stock, to one or more transactions occurring after the date of such determination in connection with which holders of such shares would otherwise be entitled to exercise such rights.

     Section 4.5 Indemnification. (a) The Corporation shall have the power, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to obligate itself to

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indemnify, and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to, (i) any individual who is a present or former director or officer of the Corporation or (ii) any individual who, while a director or officer of the Corporation and at the request of the Corporation, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner or trustee of another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise from and against any claim or liability to which such person may become subject or which such person may incur by reason of his or her service in any of the foregoing capacities. The Corporation shall have the power, with the approval of the Board of Directors, to provide such indemnification and advancement of expenses to a person who served a predecessor of the Corporation in any of the capacities described in (i) or (ii) above and to any employee or agent of the Corporation or a predecessor of the Corporation.

     (b) The Corporation may, to the fullest extent permitted by law, purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person described in the preceding paragraph against any liability which may be asserted against such person.

     (c) The indemnification provided herein shall not be deemed to limit the right of the Corporation to indemnify any other person for any such expenses to the fullest extent permitted by law, nor shall it be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which any person seeking indemnification from the Corporation may be entitled under any agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors, or otherwise, both as to action in such persons official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office.

     Section 4.6 Determinations by Board. The determination as to any of the following matters, made in good faith by or pursuant to the direction of the Board of Directors consistent with the Charter, shall be final and conclusive and shall be binding upon the

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Corporation and every holder of shares of its stock: the amount of the net income of the Corporation for any period and the amount of assets at any time legally available for the payment of dividends, redemption of its stock or the payment of other distributions on its stock; the amount of paid-in surplus, net assets, net profits, other surplus, annual or other net profit, cash flow, funds from operations, net assets in excess of capital, undivided profits or excess of profits over losses on sales of assets; the amount, purpose, time of creation, increase or decrease, alteration or cancellation of any reserves or charges and the propriety thereof (whether or not any obligation or liability for which such reserves or charges shall have been created shall have been paid or discharged); any interpretation of the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers or rights, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of any class or series of stock of the Corporation; the fair value, or any sale, bid or asked price to be applied in determining the fair value, of any asset owned or held by the Corporation or of any shares of stock of the Corporation; the number of shares of stock of any class of the Corporation; any matter relating to the acquisition, holding and disposition of any assets by the Corporation; or any other matter relating to the business and affairs of the Corporation or required or permitted by applicable law, the Charter or Bylaws or otherwise to be determined by the Board of Directors.

     Section 4.7 REIT Qualification. If the Board of Directors determines that it is no longer in the best interests of the Corporation to continue to be qualified as a REIT, the Board of Directors may revoke or otherwise terminate the Corporation’s REIT election pursuant to Section 856(g) of the Code. The Board of Directors also may determine that compliance with any restriction or limitation on stock ownership and transfers set forth in Article VI is no longer required for REIT qualification.

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     Section 4.8 Removal of Directors. Subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of Preferred Stock to elect or remove one or more directors, any director, or the entire Board of Directors, may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. For the purpose of this paragraph, “cause” shall mean, with respect to any particular director, conviction of a felony or a final judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction holding that such director caused demonstrable, material harm to the Corporation through bad faith or active and deliberate dishonesty.

ARTICLE V

STOCK

     Section 5.1 Authorized Shares. The Corporation has authority to issue 600,000,000 shares of stock, consisting of 500,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share (“Common Stock”), and 100,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share (“Preferred Stock”). The aggregate par value of all authorized shares of stock having par value is $600,000.00. If shares of one class of stock are classified or reclassified into shares of another class of stock pursuant to this Article V, the number of authorized shares of the former class shall be automatically decreased and the number of shares of the latter class shall be automatically increased, in each case by the number of shares so classified or reclassified, so that the aggregate number of shares of stock of all classes that the Corporation has authority to issue shall not be more than the total number of shares of stock set forth in the first sentence of this paragraph. The Board of Directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire Board of Directors, without any action by the stockholders of the Corporation, may amend the Charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that the Corporation has authority to issue.

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     Section 5.2 Common Stock. Subject to the provisions of Article VI and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of Common Stock, each share of Common Stock shall entitle the holder thereof to one vote. The Board of Directors may reclassify any unissued shares of Common Stock from time to time in one or more classes or series of stock.

     Section 5.3 Preferred Stock. The Board of Directors may classify any unissued shares of Preferred Stock and reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of Preferred Stock of any series from time to time, in one or more classes or series of stock.

     Section 5.4 Classified or Reclassified Shares. Prior to issuance of classified or reclassified shares of any class or series, the Board of Directors by resolution shall: (a) designate that class or series to distinguish it from all other classes and series of stock of the Corporation; (b) specify the number of shares to be included in the class or series; (c) set or change, subject to the provisions of Article VI and subject to the express terms of any class or series of stock of the Corporation outstanding at the time, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, including, without limitation, restrictions on transferability, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series; and (d) cause the Corporation to file articles supplementary with the State Department of Assessments and Taxation of Maryland (“SDAT”). Any of the terms of any class or series of stock set or changed pursuant to clause (c) of this Section 5.4 may be made dependent upon facts or events ascertainable outside the Charter (including determinations by the Board of Directors or other facts or events within the control of the Corporation) and may vary among holders thereof, provided that the manner in which such facts, events or variations shall

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operate upon the terms of such class or series of stock is clearly and expressly set forth in the articles supplementary or other Charter document accepted for record by SDAT.

     Section 5.5 Charter and Bylaws. The rights of all stockholders and the terms of all stock are subject to the provisions of this Charter and the Bylaws.

ARTICLE VI

RESTRICTION ON TRANSFER AND OWNERSHIP OF SHARES

     Section 6.1 Definitions. For the purpose of this Article VI, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

     Beneficial Ownership. The term “Beneficial Ownership” shall mean ownership of Capital Stock by a Person, whether the interest in the shares of Capital Stock is held directly or indirectly (including by a nominee), and shall include interests that would be treated as owned through the application of Section 544 of the Code, as modified by Section 856(h)(1)(B) and 856 (h)(3)(A) of the Code. The terms “Beneficial Owner,” “Beneficially Owns” and “Beneficially Owned” shall have the correlative meanings.

     Benefit Plan Investor. The term “Benefit Plan Investor” shall mean any holder of shares of Capital Stock that is (i) an employee benefit plan (as defined in Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”)), whether or not it is subject to the provisions of Title I of ERISA; (ii) a plan as defined in Section 4975(e) of the Code (any such employee benefit plan or “plan” described in clause (i) or this clause (ii) being referred to herein as a “Plan”); (iii) an entity whose underlying assets include (or are deemed to include under ERISA or Section 4975(e) of the Code) assets of a Plan by reason of such Plan’s investment in such entity or (iv) any other entity that otherwise constitutes a benefit plan investor within the meaning of the Plan Asset Regulations.

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     Business Day. The term “Business Day” shall mean any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a day on which banking institutions in the State of New York are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.

     Capital Stock. The term “Capital Stock” shall mean all classes or series of stock of the Corporation, including, without limitation, Common Stock and Preferred Stock.

     Charitable Beneficiary. The term “Charitable Beneficiary” shall mean one or more beneficiaries of the Charitable Trust as determined pursuant to Section 6.3.6, provided that each such organization must be described in Section 501(c)(3) of the Code and contributions to each such organization must be eligible for deduction under one of Sections 170(b)(1)(A), 2055 and 2522 of the Code.

     Charitable Trust. The term “Charitable Trust” shall mean any trust provided for in Section 6.3.1.

     Closing Price. The term “Closing Price” on any date shall mean the last reported sale price for such Capital Stock, regular way, or, in case no such sale takes place on such day, the average of the closing bid and asked prices, regular way, for such Capital Stock, in either case as reported in the principal consolidated transaction reporting system with respect to securities listed or admitted to trading on the NYSE or, if such Capital Stock is not listed or admitted to trading on the NYSE, as reported on the principal consolidated transaction reporting system with respect to securities listed on the principal national securities exchange on which such Capital Stock is listed or admitted to trading or, if such Capital Stock is not listed or admitted to trading on any national securities exchange, the last quoted price, or, if not so quoted, the average of the high bid and low asked prices in the over-the-counter market, as reported by the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. Automated Quotation System or, if such

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system is no longer in use, the principal other automated quotation system that may then be in use or, if such Capital Stock is not quoted by any such organization, the average of the closing bid and asked prices as furnished by a professional market maker making a market in such Capital Stock selected by the Board of Directors of the Corporation or, in the event that no trading price is available for such Capital Stock, the fair market value of the Capital Stock, as determined in good faith by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.

     Constructive Ownership. The term “Constructive Ownership” shall mean ownership of Capital Stock by a Person, whether the interest in the shares of Capital Stock is held directly or indirectly (including by a nominee), and shall include interests that would be treated as owned through the application of Section 318(a) of the Code, as modified by Section 856(d)(5) of the Code. The terms “Constructive Owner,” “Constructively Owns” and “Constructively Owned” shall have the correlative meanings.

     Controlling Person. The term “Controlling Person” shall mean a Person (other than a Benefit Plan Investor) who has discretionary authority or control with respect to the assets of the Corporation or who provides investment advice to the Corporation for a fee (direct or indirect) with respect to such assets, and any affiliate of such Person.

     Excepted Holder. The term “Excepted Holder” shall mean a Person for whom an Excepted Holder Limit is created by the Charter or by the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 6.2.7.

     Excepted Holder Limit. The term “Excepted Holder Limit” shall mean, provided that the affected Excepted Holder agrees to comply with the requirements established by the Charter or by the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 6.2.7 and subject to adjustment pursuant

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to Section 6.2.8, the percentage limit established for an Excepted Holder by the Charter or by the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 6.2.7.

     Initial Date. The term “Initial Date” shall mean the date of the closing of the issuance of Common Stock pursuant to the initial offering and placement transaction between the Corporation and the Initial Purchasers.

     Initial Purchasers. The term “Initial Purchasers” shall mean Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. and Wachovia Capital Markets, LLC.

     Insignificant Participation Exception. The term “Insignificant Participation Exception” shall mean the exception to the Plan Asset Regulation that provides that an entity’s assets will not include any of the underlying assets of a Benefit Plan Investor that invests in the entity if at all times less than 25% of the value of each class of equity interests in the entity is held by one or more Benefit Plan Investors (disregarding any investment by a Controlling Person).

     Market Price. The term “Market Price” on any date shall mean, with respect to any class or series of outstanding shares of Capital Stock, the Closing Price for such Capital Stock on such date.

     NYSE. The term “NYSE” shall mean the New York Stock Exchange.

     Person. The term “Person” shall mean an individual, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, estate, trust (including a trust qualified under Sections 401(a) or 501(c)(17) of the Code), a portion of a trust permanently set aside for or to be used exclusively for the purposes described in Section 642(c) of the Code, association, private foundation within the meaning of Section 509(a) of the Code, joint stock company or other entity and also includes

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a “group” as that term is used for purposes of Section 13(d)(3) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and a group to which an Excepted Holder Limit applies.

     Plan Asset Regulations. The term “Plan Assets Regulation” shall mean 29 C.F.R. Section 2510.3-101 et seq. issued by the U.S. Department of Labor.

     Prohibited Owner. The term “Prohibited Owner” shall mean, with respect to any purported Transfer (or other event), any Person who, but for the provisions of Section 6.2.1, would Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock in violation of the provisions of Section 6.2.1(a), and if appropriate in the context, shall also mean any Person who would have been the record owner of the shares of Capital Stock that the Prohibited Owner would have so owned.

     Publicly Offered Securities. The term “Publicly Offered Securities” shall have the meaning provided in Section 2510.3-101(b)(2) of the Plan Asset Regulations, or any successor regulation thereto.

     Restriction Termination Date. The term “Restriction Termination Date” shall mean the first day after the Initial Date on which the Corporation determines pursuant to Section 4.7 of the Charter that it is no longer in the best interests of the Corporation to attempt to, or continue to, qualify as a REIT or that compliance with the restrictions and limitations on Beneficial Ownership, Constructive Ownership and Transfers of shares of Capital Stock set forth herein is no longer required in order for the Corporation to qualify as a REIT.

     Stock Ownership Limit. The term “Stock Ownership Limit” shall mean nine and eight-tenths percent (9.8%) in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of any class or series of Capital Stock of the Corporation excluding any outstanding shares of Capital Stock not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes, or

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such other percentage determined by the Board of Directors in accordance with Section 6.2.8 of the Charter.

     Transfer. The term “Transfer” shall mean any issuance, sale, transfer, gift, assignment, devise or other disposition, as well as any other event that causes any Person to acquire Beneficial Ownership or Constructive Ownership, or any agreement to take any such actions or cause any such events, of Capital Stock or the right to vote or receive dividends on Capital Stock, including (a) the granting or exercise of any option (or any disposition of any option), (b) any disposition of any securities or rights convertible into or exchangeable for Capital Stock or any interest in Capital Stock or any exercise of any such conversion or exchange right and (c) Transfers of interests in other entities that result in changes in Beneficial or Constructive Ownership of Capital Stock; in each case, whether voluntary or involuntary, whether owned of record, Constructively Owned or Beneficially Owned and whether by operation of law or otherwise. The terms “Transferring” and “Transferred” shall have the correlative meanings.

     Trustee. The term “Trustee” shall mean the Person unaffiliated with the Corporation and a Prohibited Owner, that is appointed by the Corporation to serve as trustee of the Charitable Trust.

     Section 6.2 Capital Stock.

       Section 6.2.1 Ownership Limitations. During the period commencing on the Initial Date and prior to the Restriction Termination Date and subject to Section 6.4:

          (a) Basic Restrictions.

               (i) (1) No Person, other than an Excepted Holder, shall Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock in excess of the Stock

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Ownership Limit and (2) no Excepted Holder shall Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock in excess of the Excepted Holder Limit for such Excepted Holder.

               (ii) Except as provided in Section 6.2.7 hereof, no Person shall Beneficially Own shares of Capital Stock to the extent that such Beneficial Ownership of Capital Stock would result in the Corporation being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or would otherwise cause the Corporation to fail to qualify as a REIT.

               (iii) Except as provided in Section 6.2.7 hereof, no person shall Transfer shares of Capital Stock to the extent such transfer would result in the Capital Stock being beneficially owned by less than one hundred (100) Persons (determined under the principles of Section 856(a)(5) of the Code).

               (iv) Except as provided in Section 6.2.7 hereof, during the period commencing on the Initial Date and prior to the date that either (i) each class or series of Capital Stock qualifies as a class of Publicly-Offered Securities or (ii) the Corporation qualifies for another exception to the Plan Asset Regulations (other than the Insignificant Participation Exception), no Person shall Transfer shares of Capital Stock to the extent such Transfer would result in 25% or more of such class of Capital Stock being beneficially owned by one or more Benefit Plan Investors, disregarding, for purposes of such determination, Capital Stock held by any Controlling Person.

               (v) Except as provided in Section 6.2.7 hereof, during the period commencing on the Initial Date and prior to the date each class or series of Capital Stock qualifies as a class of Publicly-Offered Securities, no Person shall Transfer shares of

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Capital Stock unless such Person obtains from its transferee a representation and agreement that (i) its transferee is not (and will not be), and is not acting on behalf of, a Benefit Plan Investor or Controlling Person and (ii) such transferee will obtain from its transferee the representation and agreement set forth in this sentence (including without limitation clauses (i) and (ii)).

             (b) Transfer in Trust/Transfer Void Ab Initio. If any Transfer of shares of Capital Stock (or other event) occurs which, if effective, would result in any Person Beneficially Owning or Constructively Owning shares of Capital Stock in violation of Section 6.2.1(a)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), or (v),

               (i) then that number of shares of the Capital Stock the Beneficial or Constructive Ownership of which otherwise would cause such Person to violate Section 6.2.1(a)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), or (v) (rounded up to the nearest whole share) shall be automatically transferred to a Charitable Trust for the benefit of a Charitable Beneficiary, as described in Section 6.3, effective as of the close of business on the Business Day prior to the date of such Transfer (or other event), and such Person shall acquire no rights in such shares of Capital Stock; or

               (ii) if the transfer to the Charitable Trust described in clause (i) of this sentence would not be effective for any reason to prevent the violation of Section 6.2.1(a)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), or (v), then the Transfer of that number of shares of Capital Stock that otherwise would cause any Person to violate Section 6.2.1(a)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), or (v), shall be void ab initio, and the intended transferee shall acquire no rights in such shares of Capital Stock.

          Section 6.2.2 Remedies for Breach. If the Board of Directors of the Corporation or any duly authorized committee thereof or other designees if permitted by the

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MGCL shall at any time determine in good faith that a Transfer or other event has taken place that results in a violation of Section 6.2.1(a) or that a Person intends to acquire or has attempted to acquire Beneficial or Constructive Ownership of any shares of Capital Stock in violation of Section 6.2.1 (whether or not such violation is intended), the Board of Directors or a committee thereof or other designees if permitted by the MGCL shall take such action as it deems advisable to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such Transfer or other event, including, without limitation, causing the Corporation to redeem shares of Capital Stock, refusing to give effect to such Transfer on the books of the Corporation or instituting proceedings to enjoin such Transfer or other event; provided, however, that any Transfers or attempted Transfers or other events in violation of Section 6.2.1 shall automatically result in the transfer to the Charitable Trust described above, or, where applicable, such Transfer (or other event) shall be void ab initio as provided above irrespective of any action (or non-action) by the Board of Directors or a committee thereof.

     Section 6.2.3 Notice of Restricted Transfer. Any Person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire Beneficial Ownership or Constructive Ownership of shares of Capital Stock that will or may violate Section 6.2.1(a) or any Person who would have owned shares of Capital Stock that resulted in a transfer to the Charitable Trust pursuant to the provisions of Section 6.2.1(b) shall immediately give written notice to the Corporation of such event, or in the case of such a proposed or attempted transaction, give at least fifteen (15) days prior written notice, and shall provide to the Corporation such other information as the Corporation may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such Transfer on the Corporation’s status as a REIT.

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     Section 6.2.4 Owners Required To Provide Information. From the Initial Date and prior to the Restriction Termination Date:

          (a) Every owner of more than five percent (5%) (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder) in number or value of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock, within thirty (30) days after the end of each taxable year, shall give written notice to the Corporation stating the name and address of such owner, the number of shares of Capital Stock Beneficially Owned and a description of the manner in which such shares are held. Each such owner shall provide to the Corporation such additional information as the Corporation may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such Beneficial Ownership on the Corporation’s status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the Stock Ownership Limit; and

          (b) Each Person who is a Beneficial or Constructive Owner of Capital Stock and each Person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding Capital Stock for a Beneficial or Constructive Owner shall provide to the Corporation such information as the Corporation may request, in good faith, in order to determine the Corporation’s status as a REIT and to comply with requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance and to ensure compliance with the Stock Ownership Limit.

     Section 6.2.5 Remedies Not Limited. Nothing contained in this Section 6.2 shall limit the authority of the Board of Directors of the Corporation to take such other action as it deems necessary or advisable to (a) subject to Section 4.7 of the Charter, protect the Corporation and the interests of its stockholders in preserving the Corporation’s status as a REIT or (b) avoid having the assets of the Corporation being considered to be “plan assets” (within the meaning of the Plan Asset Regulations) of any stockholder.

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     Section 6.2.6 Ambiguity. In the case of an ambiguity in the application of any of the provisions of this Article VI, including any definition contained in Section 6.1 of this Article VI, the Board of Directors shall have the power to determine the application of the provisions of this Article VI with respect to any situation based on the facts known to it. In the event Section 6.2 or 6.3 requires an action by the Board of Directors and the Charter fails to provide specific guidance with respect to such action, the Board of Directors shall have the power to determine the action to be taken so long as such action is not contrary to the provisions of Sections 6.1, 6.2 or 6.3. Absent a decision to the contrary by the Board of Directors (which the Board may make in its sole and absolute discretion), if a Person would have (but for the remedies set forth in Section 6.2.1) acquired Beneficial or Constructive Ownership of Capital Stock in violation of Section 6.2.1, such remedies (as applicable) shall apply first to the shares of Capital Stock which, but for such remedies, would have been actually owned by such Person, and second to shares of Capital Stock which, but for such remedies, would have been Beneficially Owned or Constructively Owned (but not actually owned) by such Person, pro rata among the Persons who actually own such shares of Capital Stock based upon the relative number of the shares of Capital Stock held by each such Person.

     Section 6.2.7 Exceptions.

          (a) The Board of Directors of the Corporation, in its sole discretion, may exempt (prospectively or retroactively) a Person from the Stock Ownership Limit and/or the restrictions contained in Section 6.2.1(a)(ii), (iii), (iv), or (v), as the case may be, and may establish or increase an Excepted Holder Limit for such Person if the Board of Directors obtains such representations, covenants and undertakings as the Board of Directors may deem appropriate in order to conclude that granting the exemption and/or establishing or

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increasing the Excepted Holder Limit, as the case may be, will not cause the Corporation to lose its status as a REIT in the case of an exemption or Excepted Holder Limit relating to Section 6.2.1(a)(i), (ii), and (iii) or cause any assets of the Corporation to be treated as plan assets under the Plan Asset Regulations in the case of an exemption relating to Section 6.2.1(a)(iv) and (v).

          (b) Prior to granting any exception pursuant to Section 6.2.7(a), the Board of Directors of the Corporation may require a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or an opinion of counsel, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, as it may deem necessary or advisable in order to (i) determine the Corporation’s status as a REIT or (ii) in the case of an exception from Section 6.2.1(a)(iv) or (v), determine that the Corporation will not fail to qualify for the Insignificant Participation Exception or another applicable exception to the Plan Asset Regulations. Notwithstanding the receipt of any ruling or opinion, the Board of Directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with granting such exception.

          (c) Subject to Section 6.2.1.(a)(ii), an underwriter or placement agent that participates in a public offering or a private placement of Capital Stock (or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Capital Stock) may Beneficially Own or Constructively Own shares of Capital Stock (or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Capital Stock) in excess of the Stock Ownership Limit, but only to the extent necessary to facilitate such public offering or private placement and provided that the restrictions contained in Section 6.2.1(a) will not be violated following the distribution by such underwriter or placement agent of such shares of Capital Stock.

     Section 6.2.8 Change in Common Stock Ownership Limit and Excepted Holder Limits. (a) The Board of Directors may from time to time increase or decrease the Stock

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Ownership Limit; provided, however, that a decreased Stock Ownership Limit will not be effective for any Person whose percentage ownership of Capital Stock is in excess of such decreased Stock Ownership Limit until such time as such Person’s percentage of Capital Stock equals or falls below the decreased Stock Ownership Limit, but until such time as such Person’s percentage of Capital Stock falls below such decreased Stock Ownership Limit, any further acquisition of Capital Stock will be in violation of the Stock Ownership Limit and, provided further, that the new Stock Ownership Limit would not allow five or fewer Persons (taking into account all Excepted Holders) to Beneficially Own more than 49.9% in value of the outstanding Capital Stock.

     (b) The Board of Directors may only reduce the Excepted Holder Limit for an Excepted Holder: (1) with the written consent of such Excepted Holder at any time, or (2) pursuant to the terms and conditions of the agreements and undertakings entered into with such Excepted Holder in connection with the establishment of the Excepted Holder Limit for that Excepted Holder. No Excepted Holder Limit shall be reduced to a percentage that is less than the then Stock Ownership Limit.

            Section 6.2.9 Legend. Each certificate for shares of Capital Stock shall bear a legend summarizing the restrictions on transfer and ownership contained herein. Instead of a legend, the certificate may state that the Corporation will furnish a full statement about certain restrictions on transferability to a stockholder on request and without charge.

        Section 6.3 Transfer of Capital Stock in Trust.

            Section 6.3.1 Ownership in Trust. Upon any purported Transfer or other event described in Section 6.2.1(b) that would result in a transfer of shares of Capital Stock to a Charitable Trust, such shares of Capital Stock shall be deemed to have been transferred to the

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Trustee as trustee for the exclusive benefit of one or more Charitable Beneficiaries. Such transfer to the Trustee shall be deemed to be effective as of the close of business on the Business Day prior to the purported Transfer or other event that results in the transfer to the Charitable Trust pursuant to Section 6.2.1(b). The Trustee shall be appointed by the Corporation and shall be a Person unaffiliated with the Corporation and any Prohibited Owner. Each Charitable Beneficiary shall be designated by the Corporation as provided in Section 6.3.6.

     Section 6.3.2 Status of Shares Held by the Trustee. Shares of Capital Stock held by the Trustee shall continue to be issued and outstanding shares of Capital Stock of the Corporation. The Prohibited Owner shall have no rights in the shares of Capital Stock held by the Trustee. The Prohibited Owner shall not benefit economically from ownership of any shares held in trust by the Trustee, shall have no rights to dividends or other distributions and shall not possess any rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares held in the Charitable Trust.

     Section 6.3.3 Dividend and Voting Rights. The Trustee shall have all voting rights and rights to dividends or other distributions with respect to shares of Capital Stock held in the Charitable Trust, which rights shall be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the Charitable Beneficiary. Any dividend or other distribution paid to a Prohibited Owner prior to the discovery by the Corporation that the shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Trustee shall be paid with respect to such shares of Capital Stock by the Prohibited Owner to the Trustee upon demand and any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid shall be paid when due to the Trustee. Any dividends or distributions so paid over to the Trustee shall be held in trust for the Charitable Beneficiary. The Prohibited Owner shall have no voting rights with respect to shares held in the Charitable Trust and, subject to Maryland law, effective as of the

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date that the shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Trustee, the Trustee shall have the authority (at the Trustee’s sole discretion) (i) to rescind as void any vote cast by a Prohibited Owner prior to the discovery by the Corporation that the shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Trustee and (ii) to recast such vote in accordance with the desires of the Trustee acting for the benefit of the Charitable Beneficiary; provided, however, that if the Corporation has already taken irreversible corporate action, then the Trustee shall not have the authority to rescind and recast such vote. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Article VI, until the Corporation has received notification that shares of Capital Stock have been transferred into a Charitable Trust, the Corporation shall be entitled to rely on its share transfer and other stockholder records for purposes of preparing lists of stockholders entitled to vote at meetings, determining the validity and authority of proxies and otherwise conducting votes of stockholders.

     Section 6.3.4 Sale of Shares by Trustee. Within twenty (20) days of receiving notice from the Corporation that shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Charitable Trust, the Trustee of the Charitable Trust shall sell the shares held in the Charitable Trust to a person, designated by the Trustee, whose ownership of the shares will not violate the ownership limitations set forth in Section 6.2.1(a). Upon such sale, the interest of the Charitable Beneficiary in the shares sold shall terminate and the Trustee shall distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the Prohibited Owner and to the Charitable Beneficiary as provided in this Section 6.3.4. The Prohibited Owner shall receive the lesser of (1) the price paid by the Prohibited Owner for the shares or, if the Prohibited Owner did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in the Charitable Trust (e.g., in the case of a gift, devise or other such transaction), the Market Price of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the Charitable Trust and (2) the price per share received by the Trustee

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(net of any commissions and other expenses of sale) from the sale or other disposition of the shares held in the Charitable Trust. The Trustee may reduce the amount payable to the Prohibited Owner by the amount of dividends and distributions paid to the Prohibited Owner and owed by the Prohibited Owner to the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.3.3 of this Article VI. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the Prohibited Owner shall be immediately paid to the Charitable Beneficiary. If, prior to the discovery by the Corporation that shares of Capital Stock have been transferred to the Trustee, such shares are sold by a Prohibited Owner, then (i) such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the Charitable Trust and (ii) to the extent that the Prohibited Owner received an amount for such shares that exceeds the amount that such Prohibited Owner was entitled to receive pursuant to this Section 6.3.4, such excess shall be paid to the Trustee upon demand.

     Section 6.3.5 Purchase Right in Stock Transferred to the Trustee. Shares of Capital Stock transferred to the Trustee shall be deemed to have been offered for sale to the Corporation, or its designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price per share in the transaction that resulted in such transfer to the Charitable Trust (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the Market Price at the time of such devise or gift) and (ii) the Market Price on the date the Corporation, or its designee, accepts such offer. The Corporation may reduce the amount payable to the Prohibited Owner by the amount of dividends and distributions paid to the Prohibited Owner and owed by the Prohibited Owner to the Trustee pursuant to Section 6.3.3 of this Article VI. The Corporation may pay the amount of such reduction to the Trustee for the benefit of the Charitable Beneficiary. The Corporation shall have the right to accept such offer until the Trustee has sold the shares held in the Charitable Trust pursuant to Section 6.3.4. Upon such a sale to the Corporation, the interest of the Charitable Beneficiary in the shares sold shall

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terminate and the Trustee shall distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the Prohibited Owner and any dividends or other distributions held by the Trustee shall be paid to the Charitable Beneficiary.

          Section 6.3.6 Designation of Charitable Beneficiaries. By written notice to the Trustee, the Corporation shall designate one or more nonprofit organizations to be the Charitable Beneficiary of the interest in the Charitable Trust such that (i) the shares of Capital Stock held in the Charitable Trust would not violate the restrictions set forth in Section 6.2.1(a) in the hands of such Charitable Beneficiary and (ii) each such organization must be described in Section 501(c)(3) of the Code and contributions to each such organization must be eligible for deduction under one of Sections 170(b)(1)(A), 2055 and 2522 of the Code.

     Section 6.4 NYSE Transactions. Nothing in this Article VI shall preclude the settlement of any transaction entered into through the facilities of the NYSE or any other national securities exchange or automated inter-dealer quotation system. The fact that the settlement of any transaction occurs shall not negate the effect of any other provision of this Article VI and any transferee in such a transaction shall be subject to all of the provisions and limitations set forth in this Article VI.

     Section 6.5 Deemed ERISA Representations. From and after the date upon which a registration statement with respect to the Common Stock becomes effective, each purchaser and subsequent transferee of Common Stock will be deemed to have represented, warranted, and agreed that its purchase and holding of Common Stock will not constitute or result in (i) a non-exempt prohibited transaction under Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code or (ii) a violation of any applicable other federal, state, local, non-U.S. or other laws or

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regulations that contain one or more provisions that are similar to the provisions of Title I of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code.

     Section 6.6 Enforcement. The Corporation is authorized specifically to seek equitable relief, including injunctive relief, to enforce the provisions of this Article VI.

     Section 6.7 Non-Waiver. No delay or failure on the part of the Corporation or the Board of Directors in exercising any right hereunder shall operate as a waiver of any right of the Corporation or the Board of Directors, as the case may be, except to the extent specifically waived in writing.

     Section 6.8 Severability. If any provision of this Article VI or any application of any such provision is determined to be invalid by any federal or state court having jurisdiction over the issues, the validity of the remaining provisions shall not be affected and other applications of such provisions shall be affected only to the extent necessary to comply with the determination of such court.

ARTICLE VII

AMENDMENTS

     The Corporation reserves the right from time to time to make any amendment to its Charter, now or hereafter authorized by law, including any amendment altering the terms or contract rights, as expressly set forth in the Charter, of any shares of outstanding stock. All rights and powers conferred by the Charter on stockholders, directors and officers are granted subject to this reservation. Except as otherwise provided in the Charter, any amendment to the Charter shall be valid only if approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. However, any amendment to Section 4.8, Section 5.2, Section 5.3, Section 5.4, Article VI or to this sentence of the Charter shall be valid only if

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approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

ARTICLE VIII

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

     To the maximum extent that Maryland law in effect from time to time permits limitation of the liability of directors and officers of a corporation, no present or former director or officer of the Corporation shall be liable to the Corporation or its stockholders for money damages. Neither the amendment nor repeal of this Article VIII, nor the adoption or amendment of any other provision of the Charter or Bylaws inconsistent with this Article VIII, shall apply to or affect in any respect the applicability of the preceding sentence with respect to any act or failure to act which occurred prior to such amendment, repeal or adoption.

     THIRD: The foregoing amendment to and restatement of the Charter has been approved by a majority of the Board of Directors and approved by the stockholders of the Corporation as required by law.

     FOURTH: The current address of the principal office of the Corporation in the State of Maryland is as set forth in Article III of the foregoing amended and restated Charter.

     FIFTH: The name and address of the Corporation’s current resident agent is as set forth in Article III of the foregoing amended and restated Charter.

     SIXTH: The number of directors of the Corporation and the names of those currently in office are as set forth in Article IV of the foregoing amended and restated Charter.

     SEVENTH: The total number of shares of stock which the Corporation had authority to issue immediately prior to this amendment and restatement was 600,000,000, consisting of 500,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 100,000,000

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shares of Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share. The aggregate par value of all shares of stock having par value was $600,000.00.

     EIGHTH: The total number of shares of stock which the Corporation has authority to issue pursuant to the foregoing amended and restated Charter is 600,000,000, consisting of 500,000,000 shares of Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 100,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share. The aggregate par value of all shares of stock having par value is $600,000.00.

     NINTH: The undersigned Chief Executive Officer acknowledges these Articles of Amendment and Restatement to be the corporate act of the Corporation and as to all matters or facts required to be verified under oath, the undersigned Chief Executive Officer acknowledges that, to the best of his knowledge, information and belief, these matters and facts are true in all material respects and that this statement is made under the penalties for perjury.

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     IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Corporation has caused these Articles of Amendment and Restatement to be signed in its name and on its behalf by its Chief Executive Officer and attested to by its Secretary on this 15th day of March, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ATTEST:

 

 

 

Crystal River Capital, Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

/s/ John Feeney

 

 

 

By:

 

/s/ Clifford Lai

 

(SEAL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Feeney

 

 

 

 

 

Clifford Lai

 

 

Secretary

 

 

 

 

 

Chief Executive Officer

 

 

[Signature Page to Articles of Amendment and Restatement]