AMENDED AND RESTATED BY-LAWS
OF VALEANT PHARMACEUTICALS INTERNATIONAL
(a Delaware corporation and hereinafter called the “Corporation”)

ARTICLE I

Offices

SECTION 1. Registered Office. The registered office of the Corporation within the State of Delaware shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle.

SECTION 2. Other Offices. The Corporation may also have an office or offices other than said registered office at such place or places, either within or without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors shall from time to time determine or the business of the Corporation may require.

ARTICLE II

Meetings of Stockholders

SECTION 1. Place of Meetings. All meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors or for any other purpose shall be held at any such place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of meeting or in a duly executed waiver thereof.

SECTION 2. Annual Meeting. The annual meetings of the stockholders, commencing with the year 1995, shall be held at such time as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of meeting. At such annual meeting, the stockholders shall elect a Board of Directors and transact such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting.

SECTION 3. Special Meetings. Subject to the rights of the holders of any class or series of preferred stock of the Corporation (the “Preferred Stock”), special meetings of the stockholders, unless otherwise prescribed by statute, may only be called, at any time, by the Board of Directors or the Chairman of the Board, if one shall have been elected.

SECTION 4. Notice of Meetings. Except as otherwise expressly required by statute, written notice of each annual and special meeting of stockholders stating the date, place and hour of the meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at any such meeting, shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote thereat not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to the purposes stated in the notice. Notice shall be given personally, by electronic transmission or by mail and, if by mail, shall be sent in a postage prepaid envelope, addressed to the stockholder at his or her address as it appears on the records of the Corporation. Notice by mail shall be deemed given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid. Notice of any meeting shall not be required to be given to any person who attends such meeting, except when such person attends the meeting in person or by proxy for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened, or who, either before or after the meeting shall submit a signed written waiver of notice, in person or by proxy or by electronic transmission by such person. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, an annual or special meeting of stockholders need be specified in any waiver of notice.

SECTION 5. List of Stockholders. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before each meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, showing the address of and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting, (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) at the principal place of business of the Corporation. In the event the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation. The list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.

SECTION 6. Quorum, Adjournments. The holders of a majority of the voting power of the issued and outstanding stock of the Corporation entitled to vote thereat, present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at all meetings of stockholders, except as otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation (the “Certificate of Incorporation”). If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented by proxy at any meeting of stockholders, the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy, shall have the power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present or represented by proxy. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented by proxy, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally called. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or, if after adjournment a new record date is set, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

SECTION 7. Organization. At each meeting of stockholders, the Chairman of the Board, if one shall have been elected, or, in his or her absence or if one shall not have been elected, the President shall act as chairman of the meeting. The Secretary, or, in his or her absence or inability to act, the person whom the chairman of the meeting shall appoint secretary of the meeting shall act as secretary of the meeting and keep the minutes thereof.

SECTION 8. Order of Business. The order of business at all meetings of the stockholders shall be as determined by the chairman of the meeting.

SECTION 9. Voting. Except as otherwise provided by statute or the Certificate of Incorporation, each stockholder of the Corporation shall be entitled at each meeting of stockholders to one vote for each share of capital stock of the Corporation standing in his or her name on the record of stockholders of the Corporation

     (a) on the date fixed pursuant to the provisions of Section 7 of Article V of these By-Laws as the record date for the determination of the stockholders who shall be entitled to notice of and to vote at such meeting or,

     (b) if no such record date shall have been so fixed, then at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice thereof shall be given or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the date next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.

Each stockholder entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for him or her by a proxy signed by such stockholder or his or her attorney-in-fact, but no proxy shall be voted after three (3) years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. Any such proxy shall be delivered to the secretary of the meeting at or prior to the time designated in the order of business for so delivering such proxies. When a quorum is present at any meeting, the vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the issued and outstanding stock of the Corporation entitled to vote thereon, present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy, shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which, by express provision of statute, or of the Certificate of Incorporation, or of these By-Laws, a different vote is required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of such question. Unless required by statute, or determined by the chairman of the meeting to be advisable, the vote on any question need not be by ballot. On a vote by ballot, each ballot shall be signed by the stockholder voting, or by his or her proxy, if there be such proxy, and shall state the number of shares voted.

SECTION 10. Inspectors. The Board of Directors may, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors to act at such meeting or any adjournment thereof. If any of the inspectors so appointed shall fail to appear or act or if inspectors shall not have been appointed, the chairman of the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector at such meeting with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. The inspectors shall determine the number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation outstanding and the voting power of each, the number of shares represented at the meeting, the existence of a quorum and the validity and effect of proxies and shall receive votes, ballots or consents, hear and determine all challenges and questions arising in connection with the right to vote, count and tabulate all votes, ballots or consents, determine the results, and do such acts as are proper to conduct the election or vote with fairness to all stockholders. On request of the chairman of the meeting, the inspectors shall make a report in writing of any challenge, request or matter determined by them and shall execute a certificate of any fact found by them. No director or candidate for the office of director shall act as an inspector of an election of directors. Inspectors need not be stockholders.

SECTION 11. No Action by Consent. Whenever the vote of stockholders at a meeting thereof is required or permitted to be taken for or in connection with any corporate action by any provision of statute, of the Certificate of Incorporation or of these By-Laws, such vote may be taken only upon the vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting duly called and may not be taken by written consent of the stockholders.

SECTION 12. Stockholder Proposals at Annual Meetings.

     (a) At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business (other than nominations for election to the Board, which must comply with the provisions of Section 13) shall be conducted, and only such proposals shall be acted upon, as shall have been properly brought before the annual meeting of stockholders (a) by, or at the direction of, the Board of Directors or (b) by a stockholder of the Corporation who complies with the procedures set forth in this Section 12. For business or a proposal to be properly brought before an annual meeting of stockholders by a stockholder, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation, not less than 60 days nor more than 90 days prior to the scheduled date of the annual meeting, regardless of any postponement, deferral or adjournment of that meeting to a later date; provided, however, that if less than 70 days’ notice or prior public disclosure of the date of the annual meeting is given or made to stockholders, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered or received not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the earlier of (i) the day on which such notice of the date of the annual meeting was mailed or (ii) the day on which such public disclosure was made.

     (b) A stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting of stockholders (i) a description, in 500 words or less, of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting; (ii) as to the stockholder giving notice and the beneficial owner, if not, the stockholder providing notice, on whose behalf the proposal is being made, (A) the name and address of such person, (B) the class and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by each such person, (C) the name of each nominee holder for, and the number of, shares owned beneficially but not of record by each such person and (D) whether and the extent to which any hedging or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of any such person during the previous 60 day period with respect to the stock of the Corporation and whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any derivative or short positions, profit interests, options, warrants, stock appreciation or similar rights, swaps, contracts for difference, hedging transactions or borrowing or lending shares of stock) has been made by or on behalf of any such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to manage the risk or benefit of share price changes in the stock price of the Corporation for any such person or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of any such person with respect to stock or debt securities of the Corporation; (iii) a description of all purchases and sales of securities of the Corporation by or on behalf of each such person during the previous 60 day period, including the date of the transactions, the class, series and number of securities involved in the transactions and the consideration involved; (iv) a description of (A) all agreements, arrangements or understandings (whether written or oral) between or among the stockholder giving the notice and on whose behalf the proposal is being made and any other person or persons in connection with the proposal or the Corporation or (B) any material interest of the stockholder giving notice or on whose behalf the proposal is being made in the proposal or the Corporation, including any anticipated benefit to such person or persons therefrom; (v) a representation that the stockholder giving notice intends to appear in person or by proxy at the annual meeting to bring such business before the meeting; (vi) a representation whether the stockholder or the beneficial owner, if not the stockholder providing notice, intends, or is part of a group that intends, to deliver a proxy statement or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding shares required to approve or adopt the proposal or otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of the proposal; and (vii) any other information relating to the stockholder or the beneficial owner, if not the stockholder providing notice, that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies with respect to business brought at an annual meeting of stockholders pursuant to Section 14 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. In addition, a stockholder seeking to bring an item of business before the annual meeting shall promptly provide any other information reasonably requested by the Corporation.

     (c) A stockholder providing notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting shall further update and supplement such notice and any additional information provided at the request of the Corporation, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 12 or otherwise shall be true and correct as of (i) the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the annual meeting and (ii) the date of the meeting, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to or mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five business days prior to (A) in the case of clause (c)(i), the record date and (B) in the case of clause (c)(ii), the date of the meeting.

     (d) Notwithstanding anything in the Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at the annual meeting except in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 12 provided, however, that nothing in this Section 12 shall be deemed to preclude discussion by any stockholder of any business properly brought before the annual meeting in accordance with said procedures.

     (e) The chairman of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine to the meeting that business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures prescribed by this Section 12, and if he should so determine, he shall so declare to the meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.

     (f) Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the stockholder or a qualified representative of the stockholder does not appear at the annual meeting of stockholders to present the proposed business, such proposed business shall not be considered, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of the proposed business may have been received by the Corporation. For purposes of this Section 12 and Section 13 of Article II of these Bylaws, to be considered a “qualified representative” of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager, or partner of such stockholder, or must be authorized to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder, and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders.

     (g) For purposes of this Section 12 and Section 13 of Article II of these By-laws, “public disclosure” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

     (h) Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing in this Section 12 shall be interpreted or construed to require the inclusion of information about any such proposal in any proxy statement distributed by, at the direction of, or on behalf of, the Board of Directors.

SECTION 13. Nomination of Directors.

     (a) In addition to any other applicable requirements, only persons nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 13 shall be eligible for election as directors. Nominations of persons for election to the Board may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders or special meeting of stockholders called by the Board of Directors for the purpose of electing directors (i) by or at the direction of the Board or (ii) by any stockholder of the Corporation entitled to vote for the election of directors at such meeting who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 13.

     (b) Such nominations, other than those made by or at the direction of the Board, shall be made pursuant to timely notice in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than 60 days nor more than 90 days prior to the scheduled date of the meeting, regardless of any postponement, deferral or adjournment of that meeting to a later date; provided, however, that if less than 70 days’ notice or prior public disclosure of the date of the meeting is given or made to stockholders, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered or received not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the earlier of (i) the day on which such notice of the date of the annual meeting was mailed or (ii) the day on which such public disclosure was made.

     (c) A stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth (i) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director, (A) the name, age, business address and residence address of such person, (B) the principal occupation or employment of such person, (C) the class and number of shares of stock of the Corporation which are beneficially owned by such person on the date of the stockholder’s notice, (D) any other information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations for proxies for election of directors pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act (including without limitation such person’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected), (E) the name of the nominee holder for, and number of, shares owned beneficially but not of record by such person, (F) whether and the extent to which any hedging or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person during the previous 60 day period with respect to the stock of the Corporation and whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any derivative or short positions, profit interests, options, warrants, stock appreciation or similar rights, swaps, contracts for difference, hedging transactions or borrowing or lending shares of stock) has been made by or on behalf of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to manage the risk or benefit of share price changes in the stock price of the Corporation for such person or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person with respect to stock or debt securities of the Corporation, and (G) a description of all purchases and sales of securities of the Corporation by such person during the previous 60 day period, including the date of the transactions, the class, series and number of securities involved in the transactions and the consideration involved; (ii) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if not the stockholder providing notice, on whose behalf the nomination is being made, (A) the name and address of each such person, (B) the class and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially, or of record, by each such person, (C) the name of the nominee holder for, and the number of, shares owned beneficially but not of record by each such person, (D) whether and the extent to which any hedging or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of any such person during the previous 60 day period with respect to the stock of the Corporation and whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any derivative or short positions, profit interests, options, warrants, stock appreciation or similar rights, swaps, contracts for difference, hedging transactions or borrowing or lending shares of stock) has been made by or on behalf of any such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to manage the risk or benefit of share price changes in the stock price of the Corporation for any such person or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of any such person with respect to stock or debt securities of the Corporation, and (E) a description of all purchases and sales of securities of the Corporation by or on behalf of each such person during the previous 60 day period, including the date of the transactions, the class, series and number of securities involved in the transactions and the consideration involved; (iii) a description of (A) all agreements, arrangements or understandings (whether written or oral) between or among the stockholder giving notice, the beneficial owner, if not the stockholder giving notice, each proposed nominee, or any other person relating to the proposed nomination or the Corporation or (B) any material interest in the Corporation; (iv) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three years, and any other material relationships, between or among each such person or its affiliates and associates, on the one hand, and each proposed nominee, or his or her respective affiliates and associates, on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 of Regulation S-K promulgated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (and any successor regulation), if the stockholder making the nomination and any other person on whose behalf the nomination is made, or any affiliate or associate thereof, were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the proposed nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant; (v) a representation that the stockholder giving notice intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the persons named in its notice; (vi) a representation whether the stockholder or the beneficial owner, if any, intends, or is part of a group that intends, to deliver a proxy statement or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding shares required to elect the nominee or otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of the nomination; and (vii) any other information relating to each such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies for the election of directors pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Such notice must be accompanied by a written consent of each proposed nominee to be named as a nominee and to serve as a director if elected. The Corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as the Corporation may reasonably request, including, without limitation, information required to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation.

     (d) A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at an annual or special meeting shall further update and supplement such notice and any additional information provided at the request of the Corporation, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 13 or otherwise shall be true and correct as of (i) the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the meeting, and (ii) the date of the meeting, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to or mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five business days prior to (A) in the case of clause (d)(i), the record date and (B) in the case of clause (d)(ii), the date of the meeting.

     (e) Regardless of whether a nomination is made by the Board, or by a stockholder pursuant to this Section 13, to be eligible to be a nominee for election or reelection as a director of the Corporation, a person must deliver (in accordance with the time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under this Section 13) to the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive office of the Corporation a written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualification of such person and the background of any other person or entity on whose behalf the nomination is being made (which questionnaire shall be provided by the Secretary upon written request) and a written representation and agreement (in the form provided by the Secretary upon written request) that such person (A) is not and will not become a party to (1) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such person, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the Secretary of the Corporation or (2) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such person’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such person’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (B) is not and will not become a party to any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director that has not been disclosed therein, and (C) in such person’s individual capacity and on behalf of any person or entity on whose behalf the nomination is being made, would be in compliance, if elected as a director of the Corporation, and will comply with all applicable publicly disclosed corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality and stock ownership and trading policies and guidelines of the Corporation.

     (f) Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the stockholder or a qualified representative of the stockholder does not appear at the meeting of stockholders to present the nomination, such proposed nomination shall not be considered, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of the proposed nominee may have been received by the corporation.

     (g) These provisions shall not apply to the nomination of any persons entitled to be separately elected as directors by holders of preferred stock.

     (h) The chairman of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine to the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the procedures prescribed by this Section 13, and if he should so determine, he shall so declare to the meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded.

ARTICLE III

Board of Directors

SECTION 1. General Powers. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may exercise all such authority and powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or the Certificate of Incorporation directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

SECTION 2. Number, Classes, Qualifications, Election and Term of Office.

     (a) The authorized number of directors constituting the entire Board of Directors shall be fixed in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation; provided, however, that so long as the Certificate of Incorporation provides that the number of directors may be fixed by the Board of Directors, the number of directors shall be not fewer than seven (7) nor more than eleven (11). No decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

     (b) Except for any directors elected separately by the holders of any one or more series of Preferred Stock, the directors shall be divided into three classes, as nearly equal in number as reasonably possible. The term of office of the first class expired at the 1995 annual meeting of stockholders, the term of office of the second class expired at the 1996 annual meeting of stockholders and the term of office of the third class expired at the 1997 annual meeting of stockholders. At each annual meeting of stockholders, directors shall be elected to succeed those directors whose terms expire for a term of office to expire at the third succeeding annual meeting of stockholders after their election.

     (c) Directors need not be stockholders. To be eligible to be a nominee for election or reelection as a director, a person must deliver (in accordance with the time periods prescribed for delivery of notice in the Certificate of Incorporation) to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation a written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualification of such person and the background of any other person or entity on whose behalf the nomination is being made, and any other information required to be provided under the Certificate of Incorporation, (which questionnaire shall be provided by the Secretary upon written request) and a written representation and agreement (in the form provided by the Secretary upon written request) that such person (i) will abide by the requirements of this Section 2, (ii) is not and will not become a party to (A) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such person, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the Corporation or (B) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such person’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such person’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (iii) is not and will not become a party to any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director that has not been disclosed therein, and (iv) in such person’s individual capacity and on behalf of any person or entity on whose behalf the nomination is being made, would be in compliance, if elected as a director of the Corporation, and will comply with all applicable publicly disclosed corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality and stock ownership and trading policies and guidelines of the Corporation.

     (d) Except as provided in Section 11 of this Article, each director shall be elected by the vote of the majority of the votes cast with respect to that director at any annual meeting or special meeting called for the election of directors at which a quorum is present, provided that if the number of nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected, the directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at such meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. For purposes of this Section, “a majority of the votes cast” means that the number of votes cast for a director’s election exceeds fifty percent (50%) of the number of votes cast with respect to that director’s election (excluding abstentions). In order for any incumbent director to become a nominee of the Board of Directors for further service on the Board of Directors, such person must tender an irrevocable resignation, contingent on (i) that person not receiving a majority of the votes cast, and (ii) acceptance of the resignation by the Board of Directors. If a nominee for director who is an incumbent director is not elected and no successor has been elected at such meeting, the Corporate Governance/Nominating Committee shall make a recommendation to the Board of Directors as to whether to accept or reject the resignation tendered in connection therewith, or whether other action should be taken. The Board of Directors shall act on the tendered resignation, taking into account the Corporate Governance/Nominating Committee’s recommendation, and publicly disclose its decision regarding the tendered resignation and the rationale behind the decision within ninety (90) days from the date of the certification of the election results. The Corporate Governance/Nominating Committee in making its recommendation, and the Board of Directors in making its decision, may each consider any factors or other information that it considers appropriate and relevant. The director who tenders his or her resignation shall not participate in the recommendation of the Corporate Governance/Nominating Committee or the decision of the Board of Directors with respect to his or her resignation. If the incumbent director’s resignation is not accepted by the Board of Directors, such director shall continue to serve until the end of his or her term of office and until his or her successor shall have been elected and qualified or his or her earlier resignation or removal. If a director’s resignation is accepted by the Board of Directors pursuant to this Section, or if a nominee for director is not elected and the nominee is not an incumbent director, then the Board of Directors, in its sole discretion, may fill any resulting vacancy pursuant to the provisions of Section 11 of this Article or may seek to decrease the authorized number of directors in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation. 

     (e) Each director shall hold office until his or her successor shall have been elected and qualified, until his or her death, or until his or her resignation shall have become effective or he or she shall have been removed as provided in these By-Laws.

SECTION 3. Place of Meetings. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at such place or places, within or without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or as shall be specified in the notice of any such meeting.

SECTION 4. Annual Meeting. The Board of Directors shall meet for the purpose of organization, the election of officers and the transaction of other business, as soon as practicable after each annual meeting of stockholders, on the same day and at the same place where such annual meeting shall be held. Notice of such meeting need not be given. In the event such annual meeting is not so held, the annual meeting of the Board of Directors may be held at such other time or place (within or without the State of Delaware) as shall be specified in a notice thereof given as hereinafter provided in Section 7 of this Article III.

SECTION 5. Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at such time and place as the Board of Directors may fix. If any day fixed for a regular meeting shall be a legal holiday at the place where the meeting is to be held, then the meeting which would otherwise be held on that day shall be held at the same hour on the next succeeding business day. Notice of regular meetings of the Board of Directors need not be given except as otherwise required by statute or these By-Laws.

SECTION 6. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board, if one shall have been elected, or by two or more directors of the Corporation or by the President.

SECTION 7. Notice of Meetings. Notice of each meeting of the Board of Directors (and of each regular meeting for which notice shall be required) shall be given by the Secretary as hereinafter provided in this Section 7, in which notice shall be stated the time and place of the meeting. Except as otherwise required by these By-Laws, such notice need not state the purposes of such meeting. Notice of each such meeting shall be mailed, postage prepaid, to each director, addressed to him or her at his or her residence or usual place of business, by first class mail, at least two days before the day on which such meeting is to be held, or shall be sent addressed to him or her at such place by telegraph, cable, telex, telecopier, electronic mail or other similar electronic means, or be delivered to him or her personally or be given to him or her by telephone or other similar means, at least twenty-four hours before the time at which such meeting is to be held. Notice of any such meeting need not be given to any director who shall, either before or after the meeting, waive such notice in writing or by electronic transmission or who shall attend such meeting, except when he or she shall attend for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

SECTION 8. Quorum and Manner of Acting. A majority of the members of the Board of Directors then serving shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the Board of Directors, and, except as otherwise expressly required by statute or the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, the act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors. In the absence of a quorum at any meeting of the Board of Directors, a majority of the directors present thereat may adjourn such meeting to another time and place. Notice of the time and place of any such adjourned meeting shall be given to all directors unless such time and place were announced at the meeting at which the adjournment was taken, in which case such notice shall only be given to the directors who were not present thereat. At any adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally called. The directors shall act only as a Board and the individual directors shall have no power as such.

SECTION 9. Organization. At each meeting of the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, if one shall have been elected, or, in the absence of the Chairman of the Board or if one shall not have been elected, the President (or, in his or her absence, another director chosen by a majority of the directors present) shall act as chairman of the meeting and preside thereat. The Secretary or, in his or her absence, any person appointed by the chairman shall act as secretary of the meeting and keep the minutes thereof.

SECTION 10. Resignations. Any director of the Corporation may resign at any time by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission of his or her resignation to the Corporation. Any such resignation shall take effect at the time specified therein or, if the time when it shall become effective shall not be specified therein, immediately upon its receipt. Unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

SECTION 11. Vacancies. Subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock then outstanding, any vacancy in the Board of Directors, whether arising from death, resignation, removal, an increase in the number of directors or any other cause, may be filled only by the vote of a majority of the directors then in office, though less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director. Each director so chosen shall hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders at which the term of office of the class to which he or she has been elected expires, or in the case of newly created directorships, shall hold office until such time as determined by the directors electing such new director.

SECTION 12. Removal of Directors. Subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of any class or series of Preferred Stock then outstanding, any director may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of all of the then outstanding capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at an election of directors, voting together as a single class.

SECTION 13. Compensation. The Board of Directors shall have authority to fix the compensation, including fees and reimbursement of expenses, of directors for services to the Corporation in any capacity.

SECTION 14. Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the entire Board of Directors, designate one or more committees, including an executive committee, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the Committee. In addition, in the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he, she or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Except to the extent restricted by statute or the Certificate of Incorporation, each such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution creating it, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which require it. Each such committee shall serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and have such name as may be determined from time to time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Board of Directors.

SECTION 15. Action by Consent. Unless restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken by the Board of Directors or any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board of Directors or such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the Board of Directors or such committee, as the case may be. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

SECTION 16. Meetings by Electronic Communications Equipment. Unless restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, any one or more members of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or such committee by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other. Participation by such means shall constitute presence in person at a meeting.

ARTICLE IV

Officers

SECTION 1. Officers. The officers of the Corporation shall be a Chairman of the Board, a Chief Executive Officer, one or more Presidents, one or more Vice Presidents, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, and such additional officers, if any, as shall be elected by the Board of Directors pursuant to the provisions of Section 12 of this Article IV. The Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, one or more Presidents, one or more Vice Presidents, the Secretary and the Treasurer shall be elected by the Board of Directors at its first meeting after each annual meeting of the stockholders. The failure to hold such election shall not of itself terminate the term of office of any officer. All officers shall hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. Officers may, but need not, be Directors. Any number of officers may be held by the same person. In addition to the powers and duties of the officers of the Corporation as set forth in these By-Laws, the officers shall have such authority and shall perform such duties as from time to time may be determined by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 2. Resignations. Any officer of the Corporation may resign at any time by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission of his or her resignation to the Corporation. Any such resignation shall take effect at the time specified therein or, if the time when it shall become effective shall not be specified therein, immediately upon receipt. Unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of any such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

SECTION 3. Removal. Any officer of the Corporation may be removed, either with or without cause, at any time, by the Board of Directors at any meeting thereof. The removal of an officer without cause shall be without prejudice to his or her contract rights, if any. The election or appointment of an officer shall not of itself create contract rights. All agents and employees other than officers elected by the Board of Directors shall also be subject to removal, with or without cause, at any time by the officers appointing them.

SECTION 4. The Chairman of the Board. The Chairman of the Board shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and at all meetings of the Board of Directors and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 5. The Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer, subject to the provisions of these By-Laws and to the direction of the Board of Directors, shall have ultimate authority for decisions relating to the general management and control of the business and affairs of the Corporation. The Chief Executive Officer, shall perform such other duties as may be assigned by the Board of Directors from time to time and shall, in the absence of the Chairman of the Board, preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors.

SECTION 6. The President. Each President shall have such powers and perform such duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer and in the absence of the Chief Executive Officer shall perform the Chief Executive Officer’s duties if requested by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 7. The Vice-President. Each Vice-President shall perform all duties incident to the office of Vice President and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the President or any other officer to whom the Vice President reports.

SECTION 8. The Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have custody of, and when proper shall pay out, disburse or otherwise dispose of, all funds and securities of the Corporation that may have come into his or her hands; he or she may endorse on behalf of the Corporation for collection checks, notes and other obligations and shall deposit the same to the credit of the Corporation in such bank or banks or depositary or depositories as the Board of Directors may designate; he or she shall sign all receipts and vouchers for payments made to the Corporation; he or she shall enter or cause to be entered regularly in the books of the Corporation kept for the purpose full and accurate accounts of all moneys received or paid or otherwise disposed of by him or her and whenever required by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or a President shall render statements of such accounts; he or she shall, at all reasonable times, exhibit his or her books and accounts to any Director of the Corporation upon application at the office of the Corporation during business hours; and he or she shall perform all duties incident to the office of Treasurer and shall also have such other powers and shall perform such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or a President.

SECTION 9. The Secretary. The Secretary shall keep the minutes of all meetings of the Board of Directors and the minutes of all meetings of the stockholders in books provided for that purpose; the Secretary shall attend to the giving or serving of all notices of the Corporation; the Secretary shall have custody of the corporate seal of the Corporation and shall affix the same to such documents and other papers as the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, or a President shall authorize and direct; he or she shall have charge of the stock certificate books, transfer books and stock ledgers and such other books and papers as the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, or a President shall direct, all of which shall at all reasonable times be open to the examination of any Director, upon application, at the office of the Corporation during business hours; and he or she shall perform all duties incident to the office of Secretary and shall also have such other powers and shall perform such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by these By-Laws or the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or a President.

SECTION 10. The Assistant Treasurer. The Assistant Treasurer or, if there shall be more than one, the Assistant Treasurers in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their tenure) shall, in the absence of the Treasurer or, in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Treasurer and shall perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 11. The Assistant Secretary. The Assistant Secretary or, if there be more than one, the Assistant Secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their tenure) shall, in the absence of the Secretary or in the event of his or her inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary and shall perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 12. Additional Officers. The Board of Directors may from time to time elect such other officers (who may but need not be Directors), including a Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Controller, Assistant Treasurers, Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Controllers, as the Board may deem advisable and such officers shall have such titles and such authority and shall perform such duties as may from time to time be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, a President, the Chief Executive Officer or any other officer to whom the officer reports.

SECTION 13. Officers’ Bonds or Other Security. If required by the Board of Directors, any officer of the Corporation shall give a bond or other security for the faithful performance of his or her duties, in such amount and with such surety as the Board of Directors may require.

SECTION 14. Compensation. The compensation of the officers of the Corporation for their services as such officers shall be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors. An officer of the Corporation shall not be prevented from receiving compensation by reason of the fact that he or she is also a director of the Corporation.

ARTICLE V

Stock Certificates and their Transfer

SECTION 1. Stock Certificates and Uncertificated Shares. The shares of the Corporation may be represented by certificates or may be uncertificated. Every holder of stock in the Corporation shall be entitled to have a certificate, signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by, the Chairman of the Board or the President or a Vice-President and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation, certifying the number of shares owned by him or her in the Corporation. If the Corporation shall be authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restriction of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate which the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate which the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock, a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated stock, the Corporation shall send to the registered owner thereof a written notice containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates pursuant to this Section 1 or otherwise required by statute, or with respect to this Section 1 a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional, or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations, or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the rights and obligations of the holders of uncertificated stock and the rights and obligations of the holders of certificates representing stock of the same class and series shall be identical. Absent a specific request for such a certificate by the registered owner or transferee thereof, all shares may be uncertificated upon the original issuance thereof by the Corporation or upon surrender of the certificate representing such shares to the Corporation or its transfer agent.

SECTION 2. Facsimile Signatures. Any or all of the signatures on a certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent, or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if he or she were such officer, transfer agent, or registrar at the date of issue.

SECTION 3. Lost Certificates. The Board of Directors may direct uncertificated shares, or if requested by the registered owner, a new certificate or certificates to be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen, or destroyed. When authorizing such issue of a new certificate or certificates or uncertificated shares, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a 

condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen, or destroyed certificate or certificates, or his or her legal representative, to give the Corporation a bond or indemnity in such sum as it may direct sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against the Corporation on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate.

SECTION 4. Transfers of Stock. Upon surrender to the Corporation or the transfer agent of the Corporation of a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignment or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the Corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transaction upon its records; provided, however, that the Corporation shall be entitled to recognize and enforce any lawful restriction on transfer. Upon presentation to the Corporation or the transfer agent of the Corporation of an instruction with a request to transfer, pledge, or release an uncertificated share or shares, it shall be the duty of the Corporation to register the transfer, pledge, or release upon its records, and shall provide the registered owner with such notices as may be required by law. Whenever any transfer of stock shall be made for collateral security, and not absolutely, it shall be so expressed in the entry of transfer if, when the certificates are presented to the Corporation for transfer or uncertificated shares are requested to be transferred, both the transferor and the transferee request the Corporation to do so.

SECTION 5. Transfer Agents and Registrars. The Board of Directors may appoint, or authorize any officer or officers to appoint, one or more transfer agents and one or more registrars.

SECTION 6. Regulations. The Board of Directors may make such additional rules and regulations, not inconsistent with these By-Laws, as it may deem expedient concerning the issue, transfer and registration of certificates for shares of stock of the Corporation.

SECTION 7. Fixing the Record Date. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not be more than sixty (60) days nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other such action. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

SECTION 8. Registered Stockholders. The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its records as the owner of shares of stock to receive dividends and to vote as such owner, shall be entitled to hold liable for calls and assessments a person registered on its records as the owner of shares of stock, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares of stock on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of the State of Delaware.

ARTICLE VI

Indemnification of Directors and Officers

SECTION 1. General. The Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation) by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if he or she acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that his or her conduct was unlawful.

SECTION 2. Derivative Actions. The Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if he or she acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation; provided that, no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

SECTION 3. Indemnification in Certain Cases. To the extent that a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in Sections 1 and 2 of this Article VI, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, he or she shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection therewith.

SECTION 4. Procedure. Any indemnification under Sections 1 and 2 of this Article VI (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the Corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the director, officer, employee or agent is proper in the circumstances because he or she has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in such Sections 1 and 2. Such determination shall be made, with respect to a person who is a director or officer at the time of such determination, (a) by a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum, or (b) by a committee of such directors designated by majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (c) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, or (d) by the stockholders.

SECTION 5. Advances for Expenses. Expenses incurred in defending a civil or criminal action, suit or proceeding may be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of the director, officer, employee or agent to repay such amount if it shall be ultimately determined that he or she is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized in this Article VI.

SECTION 6. Rights Not-Exclusive. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, the other subsections of this Article VI shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under law, by-law, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in his or her official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office.

SECTION 7. Insurance. The Corporation shall have power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, or arising out of his or her status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify him or her against such liability under the provisions of this Article VI.

SECTION 8. Definition of Corporation. For the purposes of this Article VI, references to “the Corporation” include all constituent corporations absorbed in a consolidation or merger as well as the resulting or surviving corporation so that any person who is or was serving as a director, officer, employee or agent of such a constituent corporation or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Article VI with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as he or she would if he or she had served the resulting or surviving corporation in the same capacity.

SECTION 9. Survival of Rights. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to this Article VI shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

 

ARTICLE VII

General Provisions

SECTION 1. Dividends. Subject to the provisions of statute and the Certificate of Incorporation, dividends upon the shares of capital stock of the Corporation may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property or in shares of stock of the Corporation, unless otherwise provided by statute or the Certificate of Incorporation.

SECTION 2. Reserves. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors may, from time to time, in its absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation or for such other purposes as the Board of Directors may think conducive to the interests of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserves in the manner in which it was created.

SECTION 3. Seal. The seal of the Corporation shall be in such form as shall be approved by the Board of Directors.

SECTION 4. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed, and once fixed, may thereafter be changed, by resolution of the Board of Directors.

SECTION 5. Checks, Notes, Drafts, Etc. All checks, notes, drafts or other orders for the payment of money of the Corporation shall be signed, endorsed or accepted in the name of the Corporation by such officer, officers, person or persons as from time to time may be designated by the Board of Directors or by an officer or officers authorized by the Board of Directors to make such designation.

SECTION 6. Execution of Contracts, Deeds, Etc. The Board of Directors may authorize any officer or officers, agent or agents in the name and on behalf of the Corporation to enter into or execute and deliver any and all deeds, bonds, mortgages, contracts and other obligations or instruments, and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.

SECTION 7. Voting Upon Stocks. Unless otherwise ordered by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, a President, the Chief Operating Officer, the Chief Financial Officer or any Vice President shall have full power and authority on behalf of the Corporation to attend and to act and to vote, or in the name of the Corporation to execute proxies to vote, at any meetings of stockholders of any corporation in which the Corporation may hold stock, and at any such meetings shall possess and may exercise, in person or by proxy, any and all rights, powers and privileges incident to the ownership of such stock. The Board of Directors may from time to time, by resolution, confer like powers upon any other person or persons.

 

ARTICLE VIII

Amendments

These By-Laws may be amended or repealed or new by-laws adopted (a) by the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than 75% of the voting power of all securities of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors or (b) if the Certificate of Incorporation so provides, by action of the Board of Directors at a regular or special meeting thereof. Any by-law made by the Board of Directors may be amended or repealed by action of the stockholders upon the affirmative vote of the holders of not less than 75% of the voting power of all securities of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.

[As filed 2/24/2010]