AMENDED AND RESTATED

BYLAWS

OF

HYPERION SOLUTIONS CORPORATION

ARTICLE I

OFFICES

Section 1. The registered office shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, State of Delaware.

Section 2. The corporation may also have offices at such other places both within and without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the corporation may require.

ARTICLE II

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1. All meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors shall be held at such time and place, within or without the State of Delaware, as may be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors, and stated in the notice of the meeting. Meetings of stockholders for any other purpose may be held at such time and place, within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be stated in the notice of the meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof.

Section 2. Annual meetings of stockholders, commencing with the year 1996, shall be held at such date and time as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting, at which they shall elect by a plurality vote a board of directors, and transact such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting.

Section 3. Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given which shall state the place, date and hour of the meeting, and, in the case of a Special Meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise required by law, written notice of any meeting shall be given not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to notice of and to vote at such meeting.

Section 4. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held, which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.

Section 5. No business may be transacted at an annual meeting of stockholders, other than business that is either (a) specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof), (b) otherwise properly brought before the annual meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof), or (c) otherwise properly brought before the annual meeting by any stockholder of the corporation (i) who is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 5 and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at such annual meeting and (ii) who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 5.

In addition to any other applicable requirements, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, such stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the secretary of the corporation.

To be timely, a stockholder’s notice to the secretary must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding annual meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that in the event that the annual meeting is called for a date that is not within twenty-five (25) days before or after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder in order to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such notice of the date of the annual meeting was mailed or such public disclosure of the date of the annual meeting was made, whichever first occurs.

To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the secretary must set forth as to each matter such stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting (i) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting, (ii) the name and record address of such stockholder, (iii) the class or series and number of shares of capital stock of the corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such stockholder, (iv) a description of all arrangements or understandings between such stockholder and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder and any material interest of such stockholder in such business and (v) a representation that such stockholder intends to appear in person or by proxy at the annual meeting to bring such business before the meeting.

No business shall be conducted at the annual meeting of stockholders except business brought before the annual meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 5; provided, however, that, once business has been properly brought before the annual meeting in accordance with such procedures, nothing in this Section 5 shall be deemed to preclude discussion by any stockholder of any such business. If the chairman of an annual meeting determines that business was not properly brought before the annual meeting in accordance with the foregoing procedures, the chairman shall declare to the meeting that the business was not properly brought before the meeting and such business shall not be transacted.

Section 6. Only persons who are nominated in accordance with the following procedures shall be eligible for election as directors of the corporation, except as may be otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation with respect to the right of holders of preferred stock of the corporation to nominate and elect a specified number of directors in certain circumstances. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at any annual meeting of stockholders, or at any special meeting of stockholders called for the purpose of electing directors, (a) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof) or (b) by any stockholder of the corporation (i) who is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 6 and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at such meeting and (ii) who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 6.

In addition to any other applicable requirements, for a nomination to be made by a stockholder, such stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the secretary of the corporation.

To be timely, a stockholder’s notice to the secretary must be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the corporation (a) in the case of an annual meeting, not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding annual meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that in the event that the annual meeting is called for a date that is not within twenty-five (25) days before or after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder in order to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such notice of the date of the annual meeting was mailed or such public disclosure of the date of the annual meeting was made, whichever first occurs; provided, however, in the case of a special meeting of stockholders called for the purpose of electing directors, not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which notice of the date of the special meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of the special meeting was made, whichever first occurs.

To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the secretary must set forth (a) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election as a director (i) the name, age, business address and residence address of the person, (ii) the principal occupation or employment of the person, (iii) the class or series and number of shares of capital stock of the corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by the person and (iv) any other information relating to the person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors pursuant to Section 14 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; and (b) as to the stockholder giving the notice (i) the name and record address of such stockholder, (ii) the class or series and number of shares of capital stock of the corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such stockholder, (iii) a description of all arrangements or understandings between such stockholder and each proposed nominee and any other person or persons (including their names) pursuant to which the nomination(s) are to be made by such stockholder, (iv) a representation that such stockholder intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the persons named in its notice and (v) any other information relating to such stockholder that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. Such notice must be accompanied by a written consent of each proposed nominee to being named as a nominee and to serve as a director if elected.

No person shall be eligible for election as a director of the corporation unless nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 6. If the chairman of the meeting determines that a nomination was not made in accordance with the foregoing procedures, the chairman shall declare to the meeting that the nomination was defective and such defective nomination shall be disregarded.

Section 7. Special meetings of the stockholders, for any purpose or purposes, unless otherwise prescribed by statute or by the certificate of incorporation, may be called by the president and shall be called by the president or secretary at the request in writing of a majority of the Board of Directors. Such request shall state the purpose or purposes of the proposed meeting. The stockholders of the corporation shall not be vested with the power to call a special meeting of the stockholders.

Section 8. Written notice of a special meeting stating the place, date and hour of the meeting and the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be given not fewer than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting, to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting.

Section 9. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to the purposes stated in the notice.

Section 10. The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business except as otherwise provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally notified. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

Section 11. When a quorum is present at any meeting, the vote of the holders of a majority of the stock having voting power present in person or represented by proxy shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which by express provision of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation, a different vote is required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of such question.

Section 12. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each stockholder shall at every meeting of the stockholders be entitled to one vote in person or by proxy for each share of the capital stock having voting power held by such stockholder, but no proxy shall be voted on after three (3) years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period.

ARTICLE III

DIRECTORS

Section 1. The number of directors shall be fixed from time to time exclusively by the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors (whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships at the time any such resolution is presented to the Board for adoption). Directors shall be divided into three classes, as nearly equal in number as reasonably possible, with the term of office of the first class to expire at the 1999 annual meeting of stockholders, the term of office of the second class to expire at the 2000 annual meeting of stockholders and the term of office of the third class to expire at the 2001 annual meeting of stockholders. At each annual meeting of stockholders following such initial classification and election, directors elected to succeed those directors whose terms expire shall be elected for a term of office to expire at the third succeeding annual meeting of stockholders after their election. All directors shall hold office until the expiration of term for which elected, and until their respective successors are elected and qualified, except in the case of the death, resignation or removal of any director. Directors need not be stockholders.

Section 2. Any vacancy on the Board of Directors that results from an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority of the Board of Directors then in office, provided that a quorum is present, and any other vacancy occurring on the Board of Directors may be filled by a majority of the Board of Directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. Any director of any class elected to fill a vacancy resulting from an increase in the number of directors of such class shall hold office for a term that shall coincide with the remaining term of that class. Any director elected to fill a vacancy not resulting from an increase in the number of directors shall have the same remaining term as that of his or her predecessor.

Section 3. The business of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of its board of directors, which may exercise all such powers of the corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or by the certificate of incorporation or by these Bylaws directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Section 4. The Board of Directors of the corporation may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware, or by means of remote communication.

Section 5. The first meeting of each newly elected Board of Directors shall be held at such time and place as shall be fixed by the vote of the stockholders at the annual meeting and no notice of such meeting shall be necessary to the newly elected directors in order legally to constitute the meeting, provided a quorum shall be present. In the event of the failure of the stockholders to fix the time or place of such first meeting of the newly elected Board of Directors, or in the event such meeting is not held at the time and place so fixed by the stockholders, the meeting may be held at such time and place as shall be specified in a notice given as hereinafter provided for special meetings of the Board of Directors, or as shall be specified in a written waiver signed by all of the directors.

Section 6. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the board.

(a) Special meetings of the board may be called by the president on five (5) days’ notice to each director by mail or forty-eight (48) hours notice to each director either personally or by telephone, telegram, facsimile or electronic communication; special meetings shall be called by the president or secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of two (2) directors unless the board consists of only one director, in which case special meetings shall be called by the president or secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of the sole director.

Section 7. At all meetings of the board a majority of the directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the Board of Directors, the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

Section 8. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation of these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the board or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic communication, and the writings or electronic communications are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the board or committee.

Section 9. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these Bylaws, members of the Board of Directors, or any committee designated by the Board of Directors, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS

Section 10. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of any such committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, and in the absence of a designation by the Board of Directors of an alternate member to replace the absent or disqualified member, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any absent or disqualified member. Any committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in the resolution establishing such committee, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it. Each committee shall keep regular minutes and report to the Board of Directors when required.

COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS

Section 11. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these Bylaws, the Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary as director. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings.

REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS

Section 12. Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or Bylaw, any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of shares entitled to vote at an election of directors.

ARTICLE IV

NOTICES

Section 1. Whenever, under the provisions of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation or of these Bylaws, notice is required to be given to any director or stockholder, it shall not be construed to mean personal notice, but such notice may be given in writing, by mail, addressed to such director or stockholder, at his address as it appears on the records of the corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, or by electronic transmission. Notice to directors may also be given by telegram, telephone or cable.

Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission if consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation. Any such consent shall be deemed to be revoked if (a) the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission 2 consecutive notices by the Corporation in accordance with such consent and (b) such inability becomes known to the secretary or assistant secretary of the Corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, that the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

Written notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail. Notice given by electronic transmission shall be deemed given: (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the director or stockholder has consented to receive notice; (ii) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the director or stockholder has consented to receive notice; (iii) if by a posting on an electronic network, together with separate notice to the director or stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and (iv) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the director or stockholder.

Section 2. Whenever any notice is required by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, to be given to any director, member of a committee or stockholder, a waiver thereof in writing or electronic communication, signed by the person or persons entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto. Attendance of a person at a meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where the person attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any Annual or Special Meeting of Stockholders or any regular or special meeting of the directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written or electronically transmitted waiver of notice unless so required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. \

ARTICLE V

OFFICERS

Section 1. The officers of the corporation shall be chosen by the Board of Directors and shall be a president, treasurer and a secretary. The Board of Directors may elect from among its members a Chairman of the Board and a Vice-Chairman of the Board. The Board of Directors may also choose one or more vice presidents, assistant secretaries and assistant treasurers. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless the certificate of incorporation or these Bylaws otherwise provide.

Section 2. The Board of Directors, at its first meeting held after each Annual Meeting of Stockholders, shall elect the officers of the Corporation who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors; and each officer of the Corporation shall hold office until such officer’s successor is elected and qualified, or until such officer’s earlier death, resignation or removal. Any officer elected by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the Board of Directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors. The salaries of all officers of the Corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.

Section 3. The Board of Directors may appoint such other officers and agents as it shall deem necessary who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the board.

Section 4. The salaries of all officers and agents of the corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.

Section 5. The officers of the corporation shall hold office until their successors are chosen and qualify. Any officer elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board of Directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors.

Section 6. Powers of attorney, proxies, waivers of notice of meeting, consents and other instruments relating to securities owned by the Corporation may be executed in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation by the President or any Vice President or any other officer authorized to do so by the Board of Directors and any such officer may, in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation, take all such action as any such officer may deem advisable to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of security holders of any corporation in which the Corporation may own securities and at any such meeting shall possess and may exercise any and all rights and power incident to the ownership of such securities and which, as the owner thereof, the Corporation might have exercised and possessed if present. The Board of Directors may, by resolution, from time to time confer like powers upon any other person or persons.

THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

Section 7. The Chairman of the Board, if any, shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders at which he shall be present. He shall have and may exercise such powers as are, from time to time, assigned to him by the Board and as may be provided by law.

Section 8. In the absence of the Chairman of the Board, the Vice Chairman of the Board, if any, shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders at which he shall be present. He shall have and may exercise such powers as are, from time to time, assigned to him by the Board and as may be provided by law.

THE PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENTS

Section 9. The president shall be the chief operating officer of the corporation; and in the absence of the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Board he shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors; he shall have general and active management of the business of the corporation and shall see that all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect.

Section 10. The president shall execute bonds, mortgages and other contracts requiring a seal, under the seal of the corporation, except where required or permitted by law to be otherwise signed and executed and except where the signing and execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board of Directors to some other officer or agent of the corporation.

Section 11. In the absence of the president or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, the vice president, if any, (or in the event there be more than one vice president, the vice presidents in the order designated by the directors, or in the absence of any designation, then in the order of their election) shall perform the duties of the president, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the president. The vice presidents shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

THE SECRETARY AND ASSISTANT SECRETARY

Section 12. The secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings of the meetings of the corporation and of the Board of Directors in a book to be kept for that purpose and shall perform like duties for the standing committees when required. He shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or president, under whose supervision he shall be. He shall have custody of the corporate seal of the corporation and he, or an assistant secretary, shall have authority to afar the same to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by his signature or by the signature of such assistant secretary. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the corporation and to attest the affixing by his signature.

Section 13. The assistant secretary, or if there be more than one, the assistant secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election) shall, in the absence of the secretary or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors may from time to time prescribe.

TREASURER AND ASSISTANT TREASURERS

Section 14. The treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. Unless otherwise appointed, the chief financial officer shall be the treasurer.

Section 15. The treasurer shall disburse the funds of the corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the president and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all his transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition of the corporation.

Section 16. If required by the Board of Directors, the treasurer shall give the corporation a bond (which shall be renewed every six years) in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the corporation, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his control belonging to the corporation.

Section 17. The assistant treasurer, or if there shall be more than one, the assistant treasurers in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election) shall, in the absence of the treasurer or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the treasurer and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

ARTICLE VI

CERTIFICATE OF STOCK

Section 1. The shares of the Corporation may be represented by certificates or uncertificated, as provided by the DGCL. Every holder of stock in the corporation shall upon request be entitled to have a certificate, signed by, or in the name of the corporation by, the chairman or vice-chairman of the Board of Directors, or the president or a vice president and the treasurer or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation, certifying the number of shares owned by hurt in the corporation.

Certificates may be issued for partly paid shares and in such case upon the face or back of the certificates issued to represent any such partly paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor, and the amount paid thereon shall be specified.

If the corporation shall be authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualification, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate, if any, that the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock provided that, except as otherwise provided in section 202 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate, if any, that the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.

Section 2. Any of or all the signatures on the certificate may be facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

LOST CERTIFICATES

Section 3. The Board of Directors may direct a new certificate or certificates to be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing such issue of a new certificate or certificates, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or certificates, or his legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as it shall require and/or to give the corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed.

TRANSFER OF STOCK

Section 4. Upon surrender to the corporation or the transfer agent of the corporation of a certificate, if any, for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignation or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transaction upon its books.

FIXING RECORD DATE

Section 5. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholder or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other action. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS

Section 6. The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and to hold liable for calls and assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.

ARTICLE VII

INDEMNIFICATION

Section 1. The corporation shall hold harmless and indemnify any person entitled to the benefits of indemnification pursuant to this Article 7 (such person being hereinafter referred to as “Indemnitee”) to the full extent authorized or permitted by the provisions of Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, as amended (the “Law”), as such may be amended from time to time, and by this Article 7, as such may be amended. In furtherance of the foregoing indemnification, and without limiting the generality thereof:

(a) Proceedings Other Than Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation. Indemnitee shall be entitled to the rights of indemnification provided in this Section 1(a) if, by reason of his Corporate Status (as hereinafter defined), he is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or participant in any Proceeding (as hereinafter defined) other than a Proceeding by or in the right of the corporation. Pursuant to this Section 1(a), Indemnitee shall be indemnified against all Expenses (as hereinafter defined), judgments, penalties, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him or on his behalf in connection with such Proceeding or any claim, issue or matter therein, if he acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal Proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful.

(b) Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation. Indemnitee shall be entitled to the rights of indemnification provided in this Section 1(b) if, by reason of his Corporate Status, he is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or participant in any Proceeding brought by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor. Pursuant to this Section 1(b), Indemnitee shall be indemnified against all Expenses actually and reasonably incurred by him or on his behalf in connection with such Proceeding if he acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation; provided, however, that, if applicable law so provides, no indemnification against such Expenses shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter in such Proceeding as to which Indemnitee shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and to the extent than the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall determine that such indemnification may be made.

(c) Indemnification for Expenses of a Party Who is Wholly or Partly Successful. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Article 7, to the extent that Indemnitee is, by reason of his Corporate Status, a party to and is successful, on the merits or otherwise, in any Proceeding, he shall be indemnified to the maximum extent permitted by law against all Expenses actually and reasonably incurred by him or on his behalf in connection therewith. If Indemnitee is not wholly successful in such Proceeding but is successful on the merits or otherwise, as to one or more but less than all claims, issues or matters in such Proceeding, the corporation shall indemnify Indemnitee against all Expenses actually and reasonably incurred by him or on his behalf in connection with each successfully resolved claim, issue or matter. For purposes of this Section 1 and without limitation, the termination of any claim issue or matter in such a Proceeding by dismissal, with or without prejudice, shall be deemed to be a successful result as to such claim, issue or matter.

Section 2. In addition to, and without regard to any limitations on, the indemnification provided for in Section 1, the corporation shall indemnify and hold harmless Indemnitee against all Expenses, judgments, penalties, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by him or on his behalf if, by reason of his Corporate Status he is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or participant in any Proceeding (including a Proceeding by or in the right of the corporation), including, without limitation, all liability arising out of the negligence or active or passive wrongdoing of Indemnitee. The only limitation that shall exist upon the corporation’s obligations pursuant to these Bylaws or any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee shall be that the corporation shall not be obligated to make any payment to Indemnitee that is finally determined (under the procedures, and subject to the presumptions, set forth in Sections 6 and 7 hereof) to be unlawful under Delaware law.

Section 3.

(a) Whether or not the indemnification provided in Sections 1 and 2 hereof is available, in respect of any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding in which corporation is jointly liable with Indemnitee (or would be if joined in such action, suit or proceeding), corporation shall pay, in the first instance, the entire amount of any judgment or settlement of such action, suit or proceeding without requiring Indemnitee to contribute to such payment and corporation hereby waives and relinquishes any right of contribution it may have against Indemnitee. The corporation shall not enter into any settlement of any action, suit or proceeding in which corporation is jointly liable with Indemnitee (or would be if joined in such action, suit or proceeding) unless such settlement provides for a full and final release of all claims asserted against Indemnitee.

(b) Without diminishing or impairing the obligations of the corporation set forth in the preceding subparagraph, if, for any reason, Indemnitee shall elect or be required to pay all or any portion of any judgment or settlement in any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding in which corporation is jointly liable with Indemnitee (or would be if joined in such action, suit or proceeding), corporation shall contribute to the amount of expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred and paid or payable by Indemnitee in proportion to the relative benefits received by the corporation and all officers, directors or employees of the corporation other than Indemnitee who are jointly liable with Indemnitee (or would be if joined in such action, suit or proceeding), on the one hand, and Indemnitee, on the other hand, from the transaction from which such action, suit or proceeding arose; provided, however, that the proportion determined on the basis of relative benefit may, to the extent necessary to conform to law, be further adjusted by reference to the relative fault of corporation and all officers, directors or employees of the corporation other than Indemnitee who are jointly liable with Indemnitee (or would be if joined in such action, suit or proceeding), on the one hand, and Indemnitee, on the other hand, in connection with the events that resulted in such expenses, judgments, fines or settlement amounts, as well as any other equitable considerations which the law may require to be considered. The relative fault of corporation and all officers, directors or employees of the corporation other than Indemnitee who are jointly liable with Indemnitee (or would be if joined in such action, suit or proceeding), on the one hand, and Indemnitee, on the other hand, shall be determined by reference to, among other things, the degree to which their actions were motivated by intent to gain personal profit or advantage, the degree to which their liability is primary or secondary, and the degree to which their conduct is active or passive.

(c) The corporation shall fully indemnify and hold Indemnitee harmless from any claims of contribution which may be brought by officers, directors or employees of the corporation other than Indemnitee who may be jointly liable with Indemnitee.

Section 4. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Article 7, to the extent that Indemnitee is, by reason of his Corporate Status, a witness in any Proceeding to which Indemnitee is not a party, he shall be indemnified against all Expenses actually and reasonably incurred by him or on his behalf in connection therewith.

Section 5. Notwithstanding any other provision hereof, the corporation shall advance all reasonable Expenses incurred by or on behalf of Indemnitee in connection with any Proceeding by reason of Indemnity’s Corporate Status within ten days after the receipt by the corporation of a statement or statements from Indemnitee requesting such advance or advances from time to time, whether prior to or after final disposition of such Proceeding. Such statement or statements shall reasonably evidence the Expenses incurred by Indemnitee and shall include or be preceded or accompanied by an undertaking by or on behalf of Indemnitee to repay any Expenses advanced if it shall ultimately be determined that Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified against such Expenses. Any advances and undertakings to repay pursuant to this Section 5 shall be unsecured and interest free. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the obligation of the corporation to advance Expenses pursuant to this Section 5 shall be subject to the condition that, if, when and to the extent that the corporation determines that Indemnitee would not be permitted to be indemnified under applicable law, the corporation shall be entitled to be reimbursed, within thirty (30) days of such determination, by Indemnitee (who hereby agrees to reimburse the corporation) for all such amounts theretofore paid; provided, however, that if Indemnitee has commenced or thereafter commences legal proceedings in a court of competent jurisdiction to secure a determination that Indemnitee should be indemnified under applicable law, any determination made by the corporation that Indemnitee would not be permitted to be indemnified under applicable law shall not be binding and Indemnitee shall not be required to reimburse the corporation for any advance of Expenses until a final judicial determination is made with respect thereto (as to which all rights of appeal therefrom have been exhausted or lapsed).

Section 6. It is the intent of the corporation to secure for Indemnitee rights of indemnity that are as favorable as may be permitted under the law and public policy of the State of Delaware. Accordingly, the following procedures and presumptions shall apply in the event of any question as to whether Indemnitee is entitled to indemnification

(a) To obtain indemnification (including, but not limited to, the advancement of Expenses and contribution by the corporation), Indemnitee shall submit to the corporation a written request, including therein or therewith such documentation and information as is reasonably available to Indemnitee and is reasonably necessary to determine whether and to what extent Indemnitee is entitled to indemnification. The Secretary of the corporation shall, promptly upon receipt of such a request for indemnification, advise the Board of Directors in writing that Indemnitee has requested indemnification.

(b) Upon written request by Indemnitee for indemnification pursuant to the first sentence hereof, a determination, if required by applicable law, with respect to Indemnitee’s entitlement thereto shall be made in the specific case by one of the following three methods, which shall be at the election of Indemnitee: (1) by a majority vote of the disinterested directors, even though less than a quorum, or (2) by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, or (3) by the stockholders.

(c) If the determination of entitlement to indemnification is to be made by Independent Counsel pursuant to Section 6(b) hereof, the Independent Counsel shall be selected as provided in this Section 6(c). The Independent Counsel shall be selected by Indemnitee (unless Indemnitee shall request that such selection be made by the Board of Directors). Indemnitee or the corporation, as the case may be, may, within days after such written notice of selection shall have been given, deliver to the corporation or to Indemnitee, as the case may be, a written objection to such selection; provided, however, that such objection may be asserted only on the ground that the Independent Counsel so selected does not meet the requirements of “Independent Counsel” as defined in Section 12 hereof, and the objection shall set form with particularity the factual basis of such assertion. Absent a proper and timely objection, the person so selected shall act as Independent Counsel. If a written objection is made and substantiated, the Independent Counsel selected may not serve as Independent Counsel unless and until such objection is withdrawn or a court has determined that such objection is without merit. If, within 20 days after submission by Indemnitee of a written retest for indemnification pursuant to Section 6(a) hereof, no Independent Counsel shall have been selected and not objected to, either the corporation or Indemnitee may petition the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or other court of competent jurisdiction for resolution of any objection which shall have been made by the corporation or Indemnitee to the other’s selection of Independent Counsel and/or for the appointment as Independent Counsel of a person selected by the court or by such other person as the court shall designate, and the person with respect to whom an objections are so resolved or the person so appointed shall act as Independent Counsel under Section 6(b) hereof. The corporation shall pay any and an reasonable fees and expenses of Independent Counsel incurred by such Independent Counsel in connection with acting pursuant to Section 6(b) hereof, and the corporation shall pay an reasonable fees and expenses incident to the procedures of this Section 6(c), regardless of the manner in which such Independent Counsel was selected or appointed.

(d) In making a determination with respect to entitlement to indemnification hereunder, the person or persons or entity making such determination shall presume that Indemnitee is entitled to indemnification if Indemnitee has submitted a request for indemnification in accordance with Section 6(a) hereof. Anyone seeking to overcome this presumption shall have the burden of proof and the burden of persuasion, by clear and convincing evidence.

(e) Indemnitee shall be deemed to have acted in good faith if Indemnitee’s action is based on the records or books of account of the Enterprise, including financial statements, or on information supplied to Indemnitee by the officers of the Enterprise in the course of their duties, or on the advice of legal counsel for the Enterprise or on information or records given or reports made to the Enterprise by an independent certified public accountant or by an appraiser or other expert selected with reasonable care by the Enterprise. In addition, the knowledge and/or actions, or failure to act, of any director, officer, agent or employee of the Enterprise shall not be imputed to Indemnitee for purposes of determining the right to indemnification under this Article 7. Whether or not the foregoing provisions of this Section 6(e) are satisfied, it shall in any event be presumed that Indemnitee has at all times acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation Anyone seeking to overcome this presumption shall have the burden of proof and the burden of persuasion, by clear and convincing evidence.

(f) The corporation acknowledges that a settlement or other disposition short of final judgment may be successful if it permits a party to avoid expense, delay, distraction, disruption and uncertainty. In the event that any action, claim or proceeding to which Indemnitee is a party is resolved in any manner other than by adverse judgment against Indemnitee (including, without limitation, settlement of such action, claim or proceeding with or without payment of money or other consideration) it shall be presumed that Indemnitee has been successful on the merits or otherwise in such action, suit or proceeding. Anyone seeking to overcome this presumption shall have the burden of proof and the burden of persuasion, by clear and convincing evidence.

(g) If the person, persons or entity empowered or selected under this Article 7 to determine whether Indemnitee is entitled to indemnification shall not have made a determination within thirty (30) days after receipt by the corporation of the request therefor, the requisite determination of entitlement to indemnification shall be deemed to have been made and Indemnitee shall be entitled to such indemnification, absent (i) a misstatement by Indemnitee of a material fact, or an omission of a material fact necessary to make Indemnitee’s statement not materially misleading, in connection with the request for indemnification, or (ii) a prohibition of such indemnification under applicable law; provided, however, that such 30 day period may be extended for a reasonable time, not to exceed an additional fifteen (15) days, if the person, persons or entity making the determination with respect to entitlement to indemnification in good faith requires such additional time for the obtaining or evaluating documentation and/or information relating thereto; and provided, further, that the foregoing provisions of this Section 6(g) shall not apply if the determination of entitlement to indemnification is to be made by the stockholders pursuant to Section 6(b) hereof and if (A) within fifteen (15) days after receipt by the corporation of the request for such determination the Board of Directors or the Disinterested Directors, if appropriate, resolve to submit such determination to the stockholders for their consideration at an annual meeting thereof to be held within seventy five (75) days after such receipt and such determination is made thereat, or (B) a special meeting of stockholders is called within fifteen (15) days after such receipt for the purpose of making such determination, such meeting is held for such purpose within sixty (60) days after having been so called and such determination is made thereat.

(h) Indemnitee shall cooperate with the person, persons or entity making such determination with respect to Indemnitee’s entitlement to indemnification, including providing to such person, persons or entity upon reasonable advance request any documentation or information which is not privileged or otherwise protected from disclosure and which is reasonably available to Indemnitee and reasonably necessary to such determination. Any Independent Counsel member of the Board of Directors, or stockholder of the corporation shall act reasonably and in good faith in making a determination under any indemnification agreement related to the Indemnitee’s entitlement to indemnification. Any costs or expenses (including attorneys’ fees and disbursements) incurred by Indemnitee in so cooperating with the person, persons or entity making such determination shall be borne by the corporation (irrespective of the determination as to Indemnitee’s entitlement to indemnification) and the corporation shall indemnify and hold Indemnitee harmless therefrom.

Section 7.

(a) In the event that (i) a determination is made pursuant to this Article 7 that Indemnitee is not entitled to indemnification hereunder, (ii) advancement of Expenses is not timely made pursuant to Section 5 hereof, (iii) no determination of entitlement to indemnification shall have been made pursuant to Section 6(b) hereof within 90 days after receipt by the corporation of the request for indemnification, (iv) payment of indemnification is not made pursuant to the terms of this Article 7 or any indemnification agreement between the corporation and the Indemnitee within ten (10) days after receipt by the corporation of a written request therefor, or (v) payment of indemnification is not made within ten (10) days after a determination has been made that Indemnitee is entitled to indemnification or such determination is deemed to have been made pursuant to Section 6 hereof, Indemnitee shall be entitled to an adjudication in an appropriate court of the State of Delaware, or in any other court of competent jurisdiction, of his entitlement to such indemnification. Indemnitee shall commence such proceeding seeking an adjudication within 180 days following the date on which Indemnitee first has the right to commence such proceeding pursuant to this Section 7(a). The corporation shall not oppose Indemnitee’s right to seek any such adjudication.

(b) In the event that a determination shall have been made pursuant to Section 6(b) hereof that Indemnitee is not entitled to indemnification, any judicial proceeding commenced pursuant to this Section 7 shall be conducted in all respects as a de novo trial, on the merits and Indemnitee shall not be prejudiced by reason of that adverse determination.

(c) If a determination shall have been made pursuant to Section 6(b) hereof that Indemnitee is entitled to indemnification, the corporation shall be bound by such determination in any judicial proceeding commenced pursuant to this Section 7, absent a prohibition of such indemnification under applicable law.

(d) In the event that Indemnitee, pursuant to this Section 7, seeks a judicial adjudication of his rights under, or to recover damages for breach of, the terms of this Article 7 or any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee, or to recover under any directors’ and officers’ liability insurance policies maintained by the corporation the corporation shall pay on his behalf, in advance, any and all expenses (of the types described in the definition of Expenses in Section 12 hereof) actually and reasonably incurred by him in such judicial adjudication, regardless of whether Indemnitee ultimately is determined to be entitled to such indemnification, advancement of expenses or insurance recovery.

(e) The corporation shall be precluded from asserting in any judicial proceeding commenced pursuant to this Section 7 that the procedures and presumptions of contained in this Article 7 are not valid, binding and enforceable and shall stipulate in any such court that the corporation is bound by all the provisions of this Article 7.

Section 8.

(a) The rights of indemnification provided hereunder shall not be deemed exclusive any other rights to which Indemnitee may at any time be entitled under applicable law, the certificate of incorporation of the corporation, any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee, a vote of stockholders or a resolution of directors, or otherwise. No amendment, alteration or repeal of these Bylaws or of any provision hereof shall limit or restrict any right of Indemnitee hereunder in respect of any action taken or omitted by such Indemnitee in his Corporate Status prior to such amendment, alteration or repeal. To the extent that a change in the Law, whether by statute or judicial decision, permits greater indemnification than would be afforded currently hereunder and any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee, it is the intent of the parties hereto that Indemnitee shall enjoy the greater benefits so afforded by such change. No right or remedy herein conferred is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every other right and remedy shall be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other right or remedy.

(b) To the extent that the corporation maintains an insurance policy or policies providing liability insurance for directors, officers, employees, or agents or fiduciaries of the corporation or of any other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise which such person serves at the request of the corporation, Indemnitee shall be covered by such policy or policies in accordance with its or their terms to the maximum extent of the coverage available for any such director, officer, employee or agent under such policy or policies.

(c) In the event of any payment pursuant to this Article 7 or any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the rights of recovery of Indemnitee, who shall execute all papers required and take all action necessary to secure such rights, including execution of such documents as are necessary to enable the corporation to bring suit to enforce such rights.

(d) The corporation shall not be liable to make any payment of amounts otherwise indemnifiable hereunder if and to the extent that Indemnitee has otherwise actually received such payment under any insurance policy, contract, agreement or otherwise.

Section 9. Notwithstanding any other provision of hereunder, Indemnitee shall not be entitled to indemnification with respect to any Proceeding brought by Indemnitee, or any claim therein, unless (a) the bringing of such Proceeding or making of such claim shall have been approved by the Board of Directors or (b) such Proceeding is being brought by the Indemnitee to assert his rights as set forth herein or in any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee.

Section 10. All agreements and obligations of the corporation contained in this Article 7 shall continue during the period Indemnitee is a director or officer of the corporation (or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise) and shall continue thereafter so long as Indemnitee shall be subject to any Proceeding (or any proceeding commenced under Section 7 hereof) by reason of his Corporate Status, whether or not he is acting or serving in any such capacity at the time any liability or expense is incurred for which indemnification can be provided under this Agreement. The terms of this Article 7 shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of and be enforceable by the parties hereto and their respective successors (including any direct or indirect successor by purchase, merger, consolidation or otherwise to all or substantially all of the business or assets of the Company), assigns, spouses, heirs, executors and personal and legal representatives. The terms of this Article 7 shall continue in effect regardless of whether Indemnitee continues to serve as a director or officer of the corporation or any other enterprise at the corporation’s request.

Section 11. To the extent requested by the Indemnitee and approved by the Board of Directors, the corporation may at any time and from time to time provide security to the Indemnitee for the corporation’s obligations hereunder through an irrevocable bank line of credit, funded trust or other collateral. Any such security, once provided to the Indemnitee, may not be revoked or released without the prior written consent of the Indemnitee.

Section 12. For purposes of this Article 7:

(a) “Corporate Status” describes the status of a person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent or fiduciary of the corporation or of any other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise which such person is or was serving at the express written request of the corporation.

(b) “Disinterested Director” means a director of the corporation who is not and was not a party to the Proceeding in respect of which indemnification is sought by Indemnitee.

(c) “Enterprise” shall mean the corporation and any other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise of which Indemnitee is or was serving at the express written request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee, agent or fiduciary.

(d) “Expenses” shall include all reasonable attorneys’ fees, retainers, court costs, transcript costs, fees of experts, witness fees, travel expenses, duplicating costs, printing and binding costs, telephone charges, postage, delivery service fees, and all other disbursements or expenses of the types customarily incurred in connection with prosecuting, defending, preparing to prosecute or defend, investigating, participating, or being or preparing to be a witness in a Proceeding.

(e) “Independent Counsel” means a law firm, or a member of a law firm, that is experienced in matters of corporation law and neither presently is, nor in the past five years has been, retained to represent: (i) the corporation or Indemnitee in any matter material to either such party (other than with respect to matters concerning the Indemnitee under this Article 7 or any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee, or of other indemnitees under similar indemnification agreements), or (ii) any other party to the Proceeding giving rise to a claim for indemnification hereunder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the term “Independent Counsel” shall not include any person who, under the applicable standards of professional conduct then prevailing, would have a conflict of interest in representing either the corporation or Indemnitee in an action to determine Indemnitee’s rights under this Article 7 or any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee. The corporation agrees to pay the reasonable fees of the Independent Counsel referred to above and to fully indemnify such counsel against any and all Expenses, claims, liabilities and damages arising out of or relating to this Article 7 or any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee or its engagement pursuant hereto or thereto.

(f) “Proceeding” includes any threatened, pending or completed action, suit, arbitration, alternate dispute resolution mechanism, investigation, inquiry, administrative hearing or any other actual, threatened or completed proceeding, whether brought by or in the right of the corporation or otherwise and whether civil, criminal administrative or investigative, in which Indemnitee was, is or will be involved as a party or otherwise, by reason of the fact that Indemnitee is or was a director of the corporation, by reason of any action taken by him or of any inaction on his part while acting as a director of the corporation, or by reason of the fact that he is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise; in each case whether or not he is acting or serving in any such capacity at the time any liability or expense is incurred for which indemnification can be provided under any indemnification agreement between the corporation and Indemnitee; excluding, however, any suit initiated by an Indemnitee pursuant to Section 7 hereof to enforce his rights under this Article 7.

Section 13. If any provision or provisions of this Article 7 shall be held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, void, illegal or otherwise unenforceable for any reason whatsoever: (a) the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions of this Article 7 (including without limitation, each portion of any section of this Article 7 containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that is not itself invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby and shall remain enforceable to the fullest extent permitted by law, (b) to the fullest extent possible, the provisions of this Article 7 (including, without limitation, each portion of any section of this Article 7 containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that is not itself invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall be construed so as to give effect to the intent manifested thereby.

ARTICLE VIII

GENERAL PROVISIONS

DIVIDENDS

Section 1. Dividends upon the capital stock of the corporation, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting, pursuant to law. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation.

Section 2. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or for such other purposes as the directors shall think conducive to the interest of the corporation, and the directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.

CHECKS

Section 3. All checks or demands for money and notes of the corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

FISCAL YEAR

Section 4. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

SEAL

Section 5. The Board of Directors may adopt a corporate seal having inscribed thereon the name of the corporation, the year of its organization and the words “Corporate Seal, Delaware.” The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

INSURANCE

Section 6. The corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against any liability asserted against him and incurred by him in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnity him against such liability under the provisions of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.

ARTICLE IX

AMENDMENTS

Section 1. These Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed, in whole or in part, or new Bylaws may be adopted by the stockholders or by the Board of Directors; provided, however, that notice of such alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new Bylaws be contained in the notice of such meeting of the stockholders or Board of Directors, as the case may be. All such amendments must be approved by either the holders of a majority of the outstanding capital stock entitled to vote thereon or by a majority of the entire Board of Directors then in office.