SECOND AMENDED AND RESTATED

BYLAWS

OF

SIGNATURE GROUP HOLDINGS, INC.

ARTICLE 1

OFFICES

The registered office of Signature Group Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”) shall be located in the City and State designated in the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (the “Certificate of Incorporation”). The Corporation may also maintain offices at such other places within or without the United States as the Board of Directors may, from time to time, determine.

ARTICLE 2

STOCKHOLDERS

Section 2.1 Place of Meetings

Meetings of stockholders of the Corporation shall be held at such place as may be designated by the President or the Chief Executive Officer or the Board, or by the written consent of all stockholders entitled to vote thereat given either before or after the meeting and filed with the Secretary of the Corporation.

Section 2.2 Annual Meetings

The annual meeting of stockholders of the Corporation for the election of directors and the transaction of any other business which may properly come before such meeting shall be held each year on a date and at a time to be designated by the Board. Failure to hold the annual meeting shall not cause a forfeiture or dissolution of the Corporation.

Section 2.3 Special Meetings

Special meetings of stockholders, for any purpose or purposes, may be called at any time only by the Chairman, the President or the Chief Executive Officer, by an action of the board of directors of the Corporation then in office (the “Board”), or by a stockholder or group of stockholders holding collectively 35% of the outstanding shares. Special meetings shall be held on the date and at the time and place as may be designated by the Board. At a special meeting, no business shall be transacted and no corporate action shall be taken other than that stated in the notice of meeting.

Section 2.4 Notice of Meetings

(a) Except as otherwise provided by the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”), written notice of each meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, stating the time when and place where it is to be held, shall be served not less than ten (10) or more than sixty (60) days before the date on which the meeting is to be held, upon each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such meeting, and to any other stockholder to whom the giving of notice may be required by law. Notice, if mailed, is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at his address as it appears on the records of the corporation. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders may be given by electronic mail or other electronic transmission, in the manner provided in Section 232 of the DGCL. An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary or of the transfer agent of the corporation that the notice has been given shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein. Notice of a special meeting


shall also state the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called, and shall indicate that it is being issued by, or at the direction of, the person or persons calling the meeting. If, at any meeting, action is proposed to be taken that would, if taken, entitle stockholders to receive payment for their shares pursuant to the DGCL, the notice of such meeting shall include a statement of that purpose and to that effect.

(b) Notice of any meeting need not be given to any person who may become a stockholder of record after the mailing of such notice and prior to the meeting, or to any stockholder who attends such meeting, in person or by proxy, or to any stockholder who, in person or by proxy, submits a signed waiver of notice either before or after such meeting. Notice of any adjourned meeting of stockholders need not be given, unless otherwise required by statute.

Section 2.5 Fixing of Record Date

For the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or the allotment of any rights, or in order to make a determination of stockholders for any other proper purpose, the Board shall fix a date as the record date for any such determination of stockholders, which date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board. Such date in any case shall be not more than sixty (60) days, and in the case of a meeting of stockholders not less than ten (10) days, prior to the date of the meeting or event for the purposes of which it is fixed. When a record date is so fixed, only stockholders of record on that date shall be entitled to notice of and to vote at the meeting, or to receive the dividend, other distribution or the allotment of rights, or to exercise rights, as the case may be, notwithstanding any transfer of any shares of stock on the books of the Corporation after the record date. When a determination of stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders has been made as provided in this Section 2.5, such determination shall, unless otherwise provided by the Board, also apply to any adjournment thereof. If no record date is fixed, (a) the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day preceding the day on which the notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day preceding the day on which the meeting is held, and (b) the record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board adopts the resolution relating thereto.

Section 2.6 Quorum; Adjournment

The holders of record of a majority of the total number of votes eligible to be cast in the election of directors, represented in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of stockholders, except as otherwise provided by law, these Bylaws or the Certificate of Incorporation. In the absence of a quorum, the Chairman of the meeting or a majority of the number of votes so represented at the meeting of stockholders may adjourn the meeting from time to time, but no other business may be transacted at any such meeting. When a meeting of stockholders is adjourned, it shall not be necessary to give any notice of the time and place of the adjourned meeting or of the business to be transacted thereat, other than an announcement at the meeting at which such adjournment is taken, provided, that if such adjournment is for more than sixty (60) days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting as in the case of an original meeting. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally called. When a quorum is once present to organize a meeting of stockholders, such quorum is not broken by the subsequent withdrawal of any stockholders.

Section 2.7 Conduct of Meetings

The Chairman shall serve as chairman at all meetings of the stockholders or, if the Chairman is absent or otherwise unable to so serve, the President or Chief Executive Officer shall serve as chairman, unless another person is appointed chairman of the meeting by a majority of the entire Board. The Secretary or, in his or her absence, such other person as the chairman of the meeting shall appoint, shall serve as secretary of the meeting. The chairman of the meeting shall conduct all meetings of the stockholders in accordance with the best interests of the Corporation


and shall have the authority and discretion to establish reasonable procedural rules for the conduct of such meetings, including such regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of discussion as he or she shall deem appropriate. The chairman of the meeting shall also have the authority to adjourn the meeting from time to time and from place to place as he or she may deem necessary and in the best interests of the Corporation.

Section 2.8 Voting; Voting of Shares in the Name of Two or More Persons

In all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of the majority of shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders, except as otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. Directors shall, except as otherwise required by law, these Bylaws or the Certificate of Incorporation, be elected by a plurality of the votes cast by each class of shares entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders, present and entitled to vote in the election. Except as otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation, at each meeting of stockholders, each holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote thereat, shall be entitled to one vote for each share of stock registered in his name on the books of the Corporation.

If ownership of a share of voting stock of the Corporation stands in the name of two or more persons, in the absence of written directions to the Corporation to the contrary, any one or more of such stockholders may cast, in person or by proxy, all votes to which such ownership is entitled. If an attempt is made to cast conflicting votes by the several persons in whose names shares of stock stand, the vote or votes to which those persons are entitled shall be cast as directed by a majority of those holding such stock and present, in person or by proxy, at such meeting. If such conflicting votes are evenly split on any particular matter, each faction may vote the securities in question proportionally, or any person voting the shares, or a beneficiary, if any, may apply to such court as may have jurisdiction to appoint an additional person to act with the persons so voting the shares, which shall then be voted as determined by a majority of such persons and the person appointed by such court.

Section 2.9 Proxies

Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders or to express consent or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by an instrument in writing or by an electronic transmission permitted by law filed with the secretary of the corporation, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A proxy shall be deemed signed if the stockholder’s name is placed on the proxy (whether by manual signature, typewriting, facsimile, electronic or telegraphic transmission or otherwise) by the stockholder or the stockholder’s attorney-in-fact. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212(e) of the DGCL.

Section 2.10 Procedure for Nominations to the Board of Directors

(a) No person will be eligible for election, or elected, as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.10.

(b) Subject to the provisions hereof, the Nominating and Governance Committee shall select, and recommend to the Board for its approval, nominees for election as directors. Provided the Nominating and Governance Committee makes such nominations, no nominations for directors except those made by the Nominating and Governance Committee and approved by the Board shall be voted upon at the annual meeting of stockholders unless other nominations by stockholders are made in accordance with the provisions of this Section 2.10.

(c) Nominations of individuals for election to the Board at an annual meeting of stockholders may be made by any stockholder of record of the Corporation entitled to vote for the election of directors at such meeting who provides timely notice in writing to the Secretary as set forth in this Section 2.10. To be timely, a nomination by a stockholder must be mailed and received by, or delivered to, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the 90th day prior to the anniversary date of the most recent


annual meeting of stockholders or, if the date of the annual meeting of stockholders is more than 30 days earlier or later than such anniversary date, then not later than ten (10) days following the date that notice of the annual meeting of stockholders is first given pursuant to Section 2.10(d), or, if no annual meeting of stockholders was held the previous year, no later than ten (10) days following the date that notice of the annual meeting of stockholders is first given pursuant to Section 2.10(d).

(d) For purposes of this Section 2.10, notice shall be deemed to be first given to stockholders when disclosure of such date of the meeting of stockholders is first made in a press release reported to Dow Jones News Services, Associated Press or comparable national news service, or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “1934 Act”).

(e) Such stockholder’s notice must set forth (i) as to each person, whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or re-election as a director: (A) the name, age, business address and residence address of such person, (B) the principal occupation or employment of such person, (C) the class and number of shares of the Corporation which are beneficially owned by such person, (D) a description of all arrangements or understandings between the stockholder and each nominee and any other person or person (naming such person or persons) pursuant to which the nominations are to be made by the stockholder, and (E) any other information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for elections of directors, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A (or any successor thereto) under the 1934 Act (including without limitation such person’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement, if any, as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected); (ii) as to such stockholder giving notice: (W) the name and address, as they appear on the Corporation’s books, of the stockholder, (X) the class and number of shares of the Corporation which are owned beneficially by such stockholder, (Y) any other information that is required to be provided by the stockholder pursuant to Regulation 14A (or any successor thereto) under the 1934 Act in such stockholder’s capacity as a proponent of a stockholder nomination, and (Z) a representation whether the stockholder intends or is part of a group which intends to (1) deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to elect the nominee and/or (2) otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such nomination; and (iii) the identification of any person employed, retained or to be compensated by the stockholder submitting the nomination or by the person nominated, or any person acting on his or her behalf to make solicitations or recommendations to stockholders for the purpose of assisting in the election of such director, and a brief description of the terms of such employment, retainer or arrangement for compensation.

(f) At the request of the Secretary, any person nominated by the Nominating and Governance Committee for election as a director shall furnish to the Secretary that information required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice of nomination which pertains to the nominee together with the required written consent. The Corporation may also require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as it may reasonably require, in order to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation.

(g) Upon the receipt of a stockholder nomination made in accordance with the procedures prescribed by these Bylaws, such nomination shall be evaluated by the Corporation’s Nominating and Governance Committee (or any successor thereto) in accordance with its evaluation procedures, in order to determine whether such nominee should be included in the slate of persons recommended by the Board of Directors to the Corporation’s stockholders for election at the next annual meeting.

(h) The chairman of the meeting will, if the facts warrant, determine and declare at the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the procedures prescribed by these Bylaws, and if the Chairman so determines, the chairman will so declare at the meeting, and the defective nomination will be disregarded and not considered.


Section 2.11 Substitution of Nominees

In the event that a person is validly designated as a nominee in accordance with Section 2.10 and shall thereafter become unwilling or unable to stand for election to the Board, the Board, upon recommendation by the Nominating and Governance Committee, may designate a substitute nominee upon delivery of a written notice to the Secretary setting forth such information regarding such substitute nominee as would have been required to be delivered to the Secretary pursuant to Section 2.10 had such substitute nominee been initially proposed as a nominee. Such notice shall include a signed consent to serve as a director of the Corporation, if elected, of each such substituted nominee.

Section 2.12 Proposals Other Than Director Nominations

(a) Any new business to be taken up at the annual meeting at the request of the Chief Executive Officer or the President or by resolution of at least three-fourths of the directors then in office shall be stated in writing and filed with the Secretary at least fifteen (15) days before the date of the annual meeting, and all business so stated, proposed and filed shall be considered at the annual meeting, but, except as provided in this Section 2.12, no other proposal shall be acted upon at the annual meeting.

(b) Any proposal offered by a stockholder may be made at the annual meeting and the same may be discussed and considered, but unless properly brought before the meeting such proposal shall not be acted upon at the meeting. For a proposal to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must be a stockholder of record and have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary. To be timely, a proposal offered by a stockholder must (i) be sent to the Corporation in compliance with the requirements of Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act, if the proposal is submitted under such rule, or (ii) if not, be mailed and received by, or delivered to, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the 90th day prior to the anniversary date of the most recent annual meeting of stockholders or, if the date of the annual meeting of stockholders is more than 30 days earlier or later than such anniversary date, then not later than ten (10) days following the date that notice of the annual meeting of stockholders is first given pursuant to Section 2.12(c), or, if no annual meeting of stockholders was held the previous year, no later than ten (10) days following the date that notice of the annual meeting of stockholders is first given pursuant to Section 2.12(c).

(c) For purposes of this Section 2.12, notice shall be deemed to be first given to stockholders when disclosure of such date of the meeting of stockholders is first made in a press release reported to Dow Jones News Services, Associated Press or comparable national news service, or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the 1934 Act.

(d) A stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth as to the matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting (a) a brief description of the proposal desired to be brought before the annual meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any material interest in such business of such stockholder and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made; (b) the name and address of the stockholder proposing such business; (c) the class and number of shares of the Corporation which are owned of record by the stockholder and the dates upon which he or she acquired such shares; (d) the identification of any person employed, retained, or to be compensated by the stockholder submitting the proposal, or any person acting on his or her behalf, to make solicitations or recommendations to stockholders for the purpose of assisting in the passage of such proposal, and a brief description of the terms of such employment, retainer or arrangement for compensation; (e) a representation that the stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such new business; (f) a representation whether the stockholder intends or is part of a group which intends to (1) deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal and/or (2) otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal; and (g) all such other information regarding such proposal as would be required to be included in a proxy statement filed pursuant to the proxy rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission or required to be delivered to the Corporation pursuant to the proxy rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (whether or not the Corporation is then subject to such rules).


(e) This provision shall not prevent the consideration and approval or disapproval at an annual meeting of reports of officers, directors and committees of the Board or the management of the Corporation, but in connection with such reports, no new business shall be acted upon at such annual meeting unless stated and filed as herein provided. This provision shall not constitute a waiver of any right of the Corporation under the proxy rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission or any other rule or regulation to omit a stockholder’s proposal from the Corporation’s proxy materials.

(f) The chairman of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that any new business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures prescribed by these Bylaws, and, if the chairman so determines, the chairman will so declare at the meeting, and such new business will be disregarded and not considered.

Section 2.13 Inspectors of Election

In advance of any meeting of stockholders, the Board shall, to the extent permitted by applicable law, appoint one or more persons, which may include individuals who serve the Corporation in other capacities, including without limitation as officers, employees, agents or representatives of the Corporation, as inspectors of election to act at such meeting or any adjournment thereof. Such appointment shall not be altered at the meeting. If inspectors of election are not so appointed, the chairman of the meeting shall make such appointment at the meeting. If any person appointed as inspector fails to appear or fails or refuses to act at the meeting, the vacancy so created may be filled by appointment by the Board in advance of the meeting or at the meeting by the chairman of the meeting. The duties of the inspectors of election shall include determining the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each, the shares represented at the meeting, the existence of a quorum, the validity and effect of proxies, receiving votes, ballots or consents, hearing and deciding all challenges and questions arising in connection with the right to vote, counting and tabulating all votes, ballots or consents, determining the results and doing such acts as are proper to the conduct of the election or the vote with fairness to all stockholders. Any report or certificate made by them shall be prima facie evidence of the facts stated and of the vote as certified by them. Each inspector shall be entitled to a reasonable compensation for his or her services, to be paid by the Corporation.

Section 2.14 No Stockholders’ Action Without a Meeting

The stockholders shall not take any action without a meeting properly held in accordance with the DGCL and these Bylaws.

ARTICLE 3

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Section 3.1 Number, Election and Term of Office

(a) The number of directors which shall constitute the whole Board of Directors shall be such number as the Board of Directors shall from time to time have designated, except that in the absence of any such designation, such number shall be not less than five (5) and not more than eleven (11).

(b) Except as may otherwise be provided herein or in the Certificate of Incorporation, the members of the Board of Directors of the Corporation, who need not be stockholders, shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders, by the holders of shares, present in person or by proxy, entitled to vote in the election.

(c) Each director shall hold office until the annual meeting of the stockholders next succeeding his election, and until his successor is elected and qualified, or until his prior death, resignation or removal.


Section 3.2 Duties and Powers

The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed and all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the Board of Directors, except as are in the Certificate of Incorporation or by statute expressly conferred upon or reserved to the stockholders.

Section 3.3 Regular Meetings; Notice

(a) Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at such place or places, on such date or dates, and at such time or times as shall have been established by the Board of Directors and publicized among all directors.

(b) Notice of any regular meeting of the Board of Directors shall not be required to be given and, if given, need not specify the purpose of the meeting; provided, however, that in case the Board of Directors shall fix or change the time or place of any regular meeting, notice of such action shall be given to each director who shall not have been present at the meeting at which such action was taken within the time limited, and in the manner set forth in paragraph (b) Section 3.4 of this Article 3, with respect to special meetings, unless such notice shall be waived in the manner set forth in paragraph (c) of such Section 3.4.

Section 3.4 Special Meetings; Notice

(a) Special meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held whenever called by the President or by two of the directors, at such time and place as may be specified in the respective notices or waivers of notice thereof.

(b) Except as otherwise required by statute, notice of special meetings shall be mailed directly to each director, addressed to him at his residence or usual place of business, at least forty-eight (48) hours before the meeting is to be held, or shall be sent to him at such place by facsimile, electronic mail or other electronic means, or shall be delivered to him personally or given to him orally, not later than the day before the day on which the meeting is to be held.

(c) Notice of any meeting of the Board of Directors may be waived by any director at any time, by a signed writing, delivered to the Corporation for inclusion in the minutes, either before or after the meeting. Attendance or participation by a director at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of any required notice of the meeting unless the director promptly objects to holding the meeting or to the transaction of any business on the grounds that the meeting was not lawfully convened and the director does not thereafter vote for or assent to action taken at the meeting. Notice of any adjourned meeting shall not be required to be given.

Section 3.5 Chairman

At all meetings of the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, if any and if present, shall preside. If there shall be no Chairman, or he shall be absent, then the President shall preside, and in his absence, a Chairman chosen by the directors shall preside.

Section 3.6 Quorum and Adjournments

(a) At all meetings of the Board of Directors, the presence of a majority of the entire Board shall be necessary and sufficient to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, except as otherwise provided by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws.

(b) A majority of the directors present at the time and place of any regular or special meeting, although less than a quorum, may adjourn the same from time to time without notice, until a quorum shall be present.

Section 3.7 Participation in Meetings by Conference Telephone

Members of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting of such Board or committee by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other and such participation shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.


Section 3.8 Conduct of Business

At any meeting of the Board of Directors, business shall be transacted in such order and manner as the Board may from time to time determine, and all matters shall be determined by the vote of a majority of the directors present, except as otherwise provided herein or required by law.

Section 3.9 Directors’ Action Without a Meeting

The Board of Directors or a committee thereof may take any action without a meeting that it could properly take at a meeting if by executing a resolution setting forth the action signed by all of the directors, or all of the members of the committee, as the case may be, either before or after the action is taken, and if the signed resolution is delivered to the Corporation for inclusion in the minutes or filing with the corporate records. Such action shall be effective upon the signing of a resolution by the last director to sign, unless the consent specifies a later effective date.

Section 3.10 Manner of Acting

(a) At all meetings of the Board of Directors, each director present shall have one vote, irrespective of the number of shares of stock, if any, which he may hold.

(b) Except as otherwise provided by statute, by the Certificate of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, the action of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors. Any action authorized, in writing, by all of the directors entitled to vote thereon and filed with the minutes of the corporation shall be the act of the Board of Directors with the same force and effect as if the same had been passed by unanimous vote at a duly called meeting of the Board.

Section 3.11 Vacancies

Any vacancy in the Board of Directors occurring by reason of an increase in the number of directors, or by reason of the death, resignation, disqualification, removal (unless a vacancy created by the removal of a director by the stockholders may be filled by the stockholders at the meeting at which the removal was effected) or inability to act of any director, or otherwise, may be filled for the unexpired portion of the term by a majority vote of the remaining directors, though less than a quorum, at any regular meeting or special meeting of the Board of Directors called for that purpose.

Section 3.12 Resignation

Any director may resign at any time by giving written notice to the Board of Directors, the President or the Secretary of the Corporation. Unless otherwise specified in such written notice, such resignation shall take effect upon receipt thereof by the Board of Directors or such officer, and the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

Section 3.13 Removal

Any director may be removed with or without cause at any time by the affirmative vote of stockholders holding of record in the aggregate at least a majority of the outstanding shares of the Corporation at a special meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose.

Section 3.14 Salary

Directors who are not officers or employees of the Corporation shall be entitled to such compensation for their services as directors as may be determined by the Board of Directors from time to time. Directors who are officers or employees of the Corporation shall not be compensated for their services as directors; provided that nothing herein shall be construed to preclude any such director from receiving compensation for serving the Corporation in any other capacity. Directors shall be reimbursed for their reasonable expenses, if any, incurred in connection with attending regular or special meetings of the Board or any committee thereof.


Section 3.15 Contracts

(a) No contract or other transaction between this Corporation and any other Corporation shall be impaired, affected or invalidated, nor shall any director be liable in any way by reason of the fact that any one or more of the directors of this Corporation is or are interested in, or is a director or officer, or are directors or officers of such other Corporation, provided that such facts are disclosed or made known to the Board of Directors.

(b) Any director, personally and individually, may be a party to or may be interested in any contract or transaction of this Corporation, and no director shall be liable in any way by reason of such interest, provided that the fact of such interest be disclosed or made known to the Board of Directors, and provided that the Board of Directors shall authorize, approve or ratify such contract or transaction by the vote (not counting the vote of any such director) of a majority of a quorum, notwithstanding the presence of any such director at the meeting at which such action is taken. Such director or directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at such meeting. This Section shall not be construed to impair or invalidate or in any way affect any contract or other transaction which would otherwise be valid under the law (common, statutory or otherwise) applicable thereto.

Section 3.16 Committees

The Board of Directors, by resolution adopted by a majority of the entire Board, may from time to time designate from among its members an executive committee and such other committees, and alternate members thereof, as they may deem desirable, each consisting of two or more members, with such powers and authority (to the extent permitted by law) as may be provided in such resolution. Each such committee shall serve at the pleasure of the Board.

ARTICLE 4

OFFICERS

Section 4.1 Number, Qualifications, Election and Term of Office

(a) The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and such other officers, including a Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chairman of the Board of Directors, and one or more Vice Presidents, as the Board of Directors may from time to time deem advisable. Any officer other than the Chairman of the Board of Directors may be, but is not required to be, a director of the Corporation. Any two or more offices may be held by the same person.

(b) The officers of the Corporation shall be elected by the Board of Directors, which shall consider that subject at its first meeting after every annual meeting of stockholders.

(c) Each officer shall hold office until the annual meeting of the Board of Directors next succeeding his election, and until his successor shall have been elected and qualified, or until his death, resignation or removal.

Section 4.2 Resignation

Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice of such resignation to the Board of Directors, or to the President or the Secretary of the Corporation. Unless otherwise specified in such written notice, such resignation shall take effect upon receipt thereof by the Board of Directors or by such officer, and the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

Section 4.3 Removal

Any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, and a successor elected by a majority vote of the Board of Directors at any time.


Section 4.4 Vacancies

A vacancy in any office by reason of death, resignation, inability to act, disqualification, or any other cause, may at any time be filled for the unexpired portion of the term by a majority vote of the Board of Directors.

Section 4.5 Duties of Officers

Unless otherwise prescribed by the Board of Directors, the duties of the officers shall be as follows:

(a) Chairman of the Board. The Chairman of the Board, if one is elected, shall preside at meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders, shall be responsible for carrying out the plans and directives of the Board of Directors, shall report to and consult with the Board of Directors, and, if the Board so resolves, shall be the Chief Executive Officer. The Chairman of the Board shall have such other powers and duties as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

(b) Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall be so designated by the Board and may also hold the title of Chairman of the Board, and/or President. The Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, subject to the direction of the Board, shall be responsible for assuring that the policy decisions of the Board are implemented as formulated. The Chief Executive Officer shall be responsible for managing the day-to-day business operations of the Corporation consistent with the policies, standards and plans of the Corporation and any specific instruction or directions of the Board, and shall be responsible, in consultation with such officers and members of the Board as he or she deems appropriate, for planning the growth of the Corporation.

(c) President. The President shall exercise the usual executive powers and duties pertaining to the office of President, subject to the Board of Directors, including but not limited to; general control over the day to day management of the corporation; signing and countersigning all certificates, contracts and other instruments of the corporation; and any other powers or duties assigned by the Board of Directors from time to time. In the absence of a Chairman of the Board, the President shall preside at meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders, perform the other duties of the Chairman of the Board prescribed in this Section, and perform such other duties as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

(d) Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have the care and custody of, and be responsible for, all funds and securities of the Corporation and shall cause to be kept regular books of account. The Treasurer shall cause to be deposited all funds and other valuable effects in the name of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors and disperse funds of the corporation in payment of the just demands against the corporation, or as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, making proper vouchers for such disbursements and shall render to the Board of Directors, from time to time as may be required of him, an account of all transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition of the corporation. In general, the Treasurer shall perform all of the duties incident to the office of Treasurer, and such other duties as from time to time may be assigned by the Board of Directors.

(e) Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall perform all acts and duties as are generally incident to the office of the Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer may be the Treasurer of the Corporation, as determined by the Board.

(f) Vice President. Each Vice President shall perform such duties as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate. In addition, the Vice President, or if there is more than one, the most senior Vice President available, shall act as President in the absence or disability of the President.

(g) Secretary. The Secretary shall be responsible for and shall keep, personally or with the assistance of others, records of the proceedings of the directors and stockholders; authenticate records of the Corporation; attest all certificates of stock in the name of the Corporation; keep the corporate seal, if any, and affix the same to certificates of stock and other proper documents; keep a record of the issuance of certificates of stock and the transfers of the same; shall issue notices for all meetings as required by the Bylaws; shall have charge of the corporate books; and shall make such reports and perform such other duties as are incident to the office, or properly required by the Board of Directors.


ARTICLE 5

CAPITAL STOCK

Section 5.1 Certificates of Stock

Certificates representing shares of stock may be issued by the Corporation and shall be in such form as shall be determined by the Board. Each certificate shall state that the Corporation will furnish to any stockholder upon request and without charge a statement of the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of the shares of each class or series of stock and the qualifications or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights, or shall set forth such statement on the certificate itself. The certificates shall be numbered in the order of their issue and entered in the books of the Corporation or its transfer agent or agents as they are issued. Each certificate shall state the registered holder’s name and the number and class of shares and shall be signed by the Chairman or the President and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and may, but need not, bear the seal of the Corporation or a facsimile thereof. Any or all of the signatures of such officers on the certificates may be facsimiles, provided the Corporation is not acting as Registrar with respect to the registration thereof. In case any officer or officers who shall have signed any such certificate shall cease to be such officer or officers of the Corporation, whether because of death, resignation or otherwise, before such certificate shall have been delivered by the Corporation, such certificate may nevertheless be adopted by the Corporation and be issued and delivered as though the person or persons who signed such certificate or certificates had not ceased to be such officer or officers of the Corporation. The Board of Directors of the Corporation may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares.

Section 5.2 Transfer Agent and Registrar

The Board shall have the power to appoint one or more Transfer Agents and Registrars for the transfer and registration of certificates of stock of any class and may require that stock certificates be countersigned and registered by one or more of such Transfer Agents and Registrars. Whenever any stock certificate is countersigned or otherwise authenticated by a Transfer Agent, and by a Registrar, then a facsimile of the signatures of the Transfer Agent or the Registrar of the Corporation may be printed or lithographed upon the certificate in lieu of the actual signatures.

Section 5.3 Registration and Transfer of Shares

Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, the name of each person owning a share of the capital stock of the Corporation shall be entered on the books of the Corporation together with the number of shares held by him or her, the numbers of the certificates covering such shares and the dates of issue of such certificates. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, the shares of stock of the Corporation shall be transferable on the books of the Corporation by the holders thereof in person, or by their duly authorized attorneys or legal representatives, on surrender and cancellation of certificates for a like number of shares, accompanied by an assignment or power of transfer endorsed thereon or attached thereto, duly executed, with such guarantee or proof of the authenticity of the signature as the Corporation or its agents may reasonably require and with proper evidence of payment of any applicable transfer taxes. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, a record shall be made of each transfer.

Section 5.4 Lost, Destroyed and Mutilated Certificates

The holder of any shares of stock of the Corporation shall immediately notify the Corporation of any loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of the certificates therefor. The Corporation may issue, or cause to be issued, a new certificate of stock in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it alleged to have been lost, stolen or


destroyed upon evidence satisfactory to the Corporation of the loss, theft or destruction of the certificate and, in the case of mutilation, the surrender of the mutilated certificate. The Corporation may, in its discretion, require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or his or her legal representatives, to give the Corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft, destruction or mutilation of any such certificate and the issuance of such new certificate, or may refer such owner to such remedy or remedies as he or she may have under the DGCL.

Section 5.5 Holder of Record

Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, the Corporation shall be entitled to treat the holder of record of any share or shares of stock as the holder thereof in fact and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise expressly provided by law.

ARTICLE 6

DIVIDENDS

The Board shall have the power, subject to the provisions of law and the requirements of the Certificate of Incorporation, to declare and pay dividends out of surplus (or, if no surplus exists, out of net profits of the Corporation, for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year, except where there is an impairment of capital stock), to pay such dividends to the stockholders in cash, in property or in shares of the capital stock of the Corporation and to fix the date or dates for the payment of such dividends.

ARTICLE 7

MISCELLANEOUS

Section 7.1 Inspection of Corporate Record

Stockholders may inspect such corporate records at such times and based upon such limitations of such rights as may be set forth in the DGCL from time to time.

Section 7.2 Checks, Drafts, Etc.

All checks, drafts, bonds, bill of exchange, or other orders for payment of money, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name or payable to the Corporation shall be signed or endorsed by such person or persons and in such manner as, from time to time, shall be determined by resolution of the Board.

Section 7.3 Contracts, Etc., How Executed

The Board, except as in these Bylaws otherwise provided, may authorize any officer or officers, agent or agents, to enter into any contract or execute any instrument or document in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation, and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless otherwise specifically determined by the Board or otherwise required by law, formal contracts, promissory notes and other evidences of indebtedness, deeds of trust, mortgages and corporate instruments or documents requiring the corporate seal, shall be executed, signed or endorsed by the President or any Vice President and by the Secretary (or any Assistant Secretary), the Chief Financial Officer or the Treasurer (or any Assistant Treasurer). The Board may, however, authorize any one (1) of such officers to sign any of such instruments for and on behalf of the Corporation, without necessity of countersignature; may designate officers or employees of the Corporation, other than those named above, who may, in the name of the Corporation, sign such instruments; and may authorize the use of facsimile signatures of any of such persons. No officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the Corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit to render it liable for any purpose or to any amount except as specifically authorized in these Bylaws or by the Board in accordance with these Bylaws.


Section 7.4 Representation of Shares of Stock of Other Corporations

The President or any Vice President and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of this Corporation are authorized to vote, represent and exercise on behalf of this Corporation all rights incident to any and all shares of stock of any other corporation or corporations standing in the name of this Corporation. The authority herein granted to said officers to vote or represent on behalf of this Corporation any and all shares of stock held by this Corporation in any other corporation or corporations may be exercised either by such officers in person or by any persons authorized so to do by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by said officers.

Section 7.5 Inspection, of Bylaws

The Corporation shall keep at its registered office the original or a copy of the Bylaws as amended or otherwise altered to date, certified by the Secretary, which shall be open to inspection by the stockholders at all reasonable times during office hours.

Section 7.6 Conflict

In the event of any conflict between any provision in these Bylaws and in the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, the provision in the Certificate of Incorporation shall control.

ARTICLE 8

RESTRICTIONS ON TRANSFER OF SHARES

Section 8.1 Definitions

As used in this Article 8, the following capitalized terms have the following meanings when used herein with initial capital letters (and any references to any portions of Treasury Regulation §§ 1.382-2T, 1.382-3 and 1.382-4 shall include any successor provisions):

(a) “4.9-percent Transaction” means any Transfer described in clause (a) or (b) of Section 8.2.

(b) “4.9-percent Stockholder” a Person who owns 4.9% or more of the Corporation’s then-outstanding Common Shares, whether directly or indirectly, and including shares such Person would be deemed to constructively own or which otherwise would be aggregated with shares owned by such Person pursuant to Section 382 of the Code, or any successor provision or replacement provision and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.

(c) “Agent” has the meaning set forth in Section 8.5.

(d) “Common Shares” means any interest in shares of common shares, par value $0.001 per share, of the Corporation that would be treated as “stock” of the Corporation pursuant to Treasury Regulation § 1.382-2T(f)(18).

(e) “Code” means the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time, and the rulings issued thereunder.

(f) “Corporation Security” or “Corporation Securities” means (i) Common Shares, (ii) shares of preferred stock issued by the Corporation (other than preferred stock described in Section 1504(a)(4) of the Code), (iii) warrants, rights, or options (including options within the meaning of Treasury Regulation §§ 1.382-2T(h)(4)(v)) and 1.382-4 to purchase Corporation Securities, and (iv) any Shares.

(g) “Effective Date” means the date that these Bylaws were adopted by the Board of Directors.

(h) “Excess Securities” has the meaning given such term in Section 8.4.

(i) “Expiration Date” means the earlier of (i) the repeal of Section 382 of the Code or any successor statute if the Board of Directors determines that this Article 8 is no longer necessary for the preservation of Tax Benefits, (ii) the beginning of a taxable year of the Corporation to which the Board of Directors determines that no Tax Benefits may be carried forward or (iii) such date as the Board of Directors shall fix in accordance with Section 8.12.


(j) “Percentage Share Ownership” means the percentage Share Ownership interest of any Person or group (as the context may require) for purposes of Section 382 of the Code as determined in accordance with the Treasury Regulation §§ 1.382-2T(g), (h), (j) and (k) and 1.382-4 or any successor provision.

(k) “Person” means any individual, firm, corporation or other legal entity, including a group of persons treated as an entity pursuant to Treasury Regulation § 1.382-3(a)(1)(i); and includes any successor (by merger or otherwise) of such entity.

(l) “Prohibited Distributions” means any and all dividends or other distributions paid by the Corporation with respect to any Excess Securities received by a Purported Transferee.

(m) “Prohibited Transfer” means any Transfer or purported Transfer of Corporation Securities to the extent that such Transfer is prohibited and/or void under this Article 8.

(n) “Public Group” has the meaning set forth in Treasury Regulation § 1.382-2T(f)(13).

(o) “Purported Transferee” has the meaning set forth in Section 8.4.

(p) “Shares” means any interest that would be treated as “stock” of the Corporation pursuant to Treasury Regulation § 1.382-2T(f)(18).

(q) “Share Ownership” means any direct or indirect ownership of Shares, including any ownership by virtue of application of constructive ownership rules, with such direct, indirect, and constructive ownership determined under the provisions of Section 382 of the Code and the regulations thereunder.

(r) “Tax Benefits” means the net operating loss carryforwards, capital loss carryforwards, general business credit carryforwards, alternative minimum tax credit carryforwards and foreign tax credit carryforwards, as well as any loss or deduction attributable to a “net unrealized built-in loss” of the Corporation or any direct or indirect subsidiary thereof, within the meaning of Section 382 of the Code.

(s) “Transfer” means, any direct or indirect sale, transfer, assignment, conveyance, pledge or other disposition or other action taken by a person, other than the Corporation, that alters the Percentage Share Ownership of any Person. A Transfer also shall include the creation or grant of an option (including an option within the meaning of Treasury Regulation §§ 1.382-2T(h)(4)(v) and 1.382-4). For the avoidance of doubt, a Transfer shall not include the creation or grant of an option by the Corporation, nor shall a Transfer include the issuance of Shares by the Corporation.

(t) “Transferee” means any Person to whom Corporation Securities are Transferred.

(u) “Treasury Regulations” means the regulations, including temporary regulations or any successor regulations promulgated under the Code, as amended from time to time.

Section 8.2 Transfer and Ownership Restrictions

In order to preserve the Tax Benefits, from and after the Effective Date of this Article 8 any attempted Transfer of Corporation Securities prior to the Expiration Date and any attempted Transfer of Corporation Securities pursuant to an agreement entered into prior to the Expiration Date, shall be prohibited and void ab initio to the extent that, as a result of such Transfer (or any series of Transfers of which such Transfer is a part), either (a) any Person or Persons would become a 4.9-percent Stockholder, (b) the Percentage Share Ownership in the Corporation of any 4.9-percent Stockholder would be increased, of (c) any Stockholder holding 5% or more of the total market value of the Corporate Securities Transfers, or agrees to Transfer, Corporate Securities; provided, however, that nothing herein contained shall preclude the settlement of any transaction in the Corporation Securities entered into through the facilities of the New York Stock Exchange, Inc.


Section 8.3 Exceptions

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein:

(a) Transfers to a Public Group (including a new Public Group created under Treasury Regulation § 1.382-2T(j)(3)(i)) shall be permitted.

(b) The restrictions set forth in Section 8.2 shall not apply to an attempted Transfer that is a 4.9-percent Transaction if the transferor or the Transferee obtains the written approval of the Board of Directors or a duly authorized committee thereof. As a condition to granting its approval pursuant to this Section 8.3, the Board of Directors, may, in its discretion, require (at the expense of the transferor and/or Transferee) an opinion of counsel selected by the Board of Directors that the Transfer shall not result in the application of any Section 382 of the Code limitation on the use of the Tax Benefits; provided that the Board of Directors may grant such approval notwithstanding the effect of such approval on the Tax Benefits if it determines that the approval is in the best interests of the Corporation. The Board of Directors may impose any conditions that it deems reasonable and appropriate in connection with such approval, including, without limitation, restrictions on the ability of any Transferee to Transfer Shares acquired through a Transfer. Approvals of the Board of Directors hereunder may be given prospectively or retroactively. The Board of Directors, to the fullest extent permitted by law, may exercise the authority granted by this Article 8 through duly authorized officers or agents of the Corporation. Nothing in this Section 8.3 shall be construed to limit or restrict the Board of Directors in the exercise of its fiduciary duties under applicable law.

Section 8.4 Excess Securities

(a) No employee or agent of the Corporation shall record any Prohibited Transfer, and the purported transferee of such a Prohibited Transfer (the “Purported Transferee”) shall not be recognized as a stockholder of the Corporation for any purpose whatsoever in respect of the Corporation Securities which are the subject of the Prohibited Transfer (the “Excess Securities”). Until the Excess Securities are acquired by another person in a Transfer that is not a Prohibited Transfer, the Purported Transferee shall not be entitled with respect to such Excess Securities to any rights of stockholders of the Corporation, including, without limitation, the right to vote such Excess Securities and to receive dividends or distributions, whether liquidating or otherwise, in respect thereof, if any, and the Excess Securities shall be deemed to remain with the transferor unless and until the Excess Securities are transferred to the Agent pursuant to Section 8.5 or until an approval is obtained under Section 8.3. After the Excess Securities have been acquired in a Transfer that is not a Prohibited Transfer, the Corporation Securities shall cease to be Excess Securities. For this purpose, any Transfer of Excess Securities not in accordance with the provisions of Sections 8.4 or 8.5 shall also be a Prohibited Transfer.

(b) The Corporation may require as a condition to the registration of the Transfer of any Corporation Securities or the payment of any distribution on any Corporation Securities that the proposed Transferee or payee furnish to the Corporation all information reasonably requested by the Corporation with respect to its direct or indirect ownership interests in such Corporation Securities. The Corporation may make such arrangements or issue such instructions to its share transfer agent as may be determined by the Board of Directors to be necessary or advisable to implement this Article 8, including, without limitation, authorizing such transfer agent to require an affidavit from a Purported Transferee regarding such Person’s actual and constructive ownership of shares and other evidence that a Transfer will not be prohibited by this Article 8 as a condition to registering any transfer.

Section 8.5 Transfer to Agent

If the Board of Directors determines that a Transfer of Corporation Securities constitutes a Prohibited Transfer then, upon written demand by the Corporation sent within thirty days of the date on which the Board of Directors determines that the attempted Transfer would result in Excess Securities, the Purported Transferee shall transfer or cause to be transferred any certificate or other evidence of ownership of the Excess Securities within the Purported Transferee’s possession or control, together with any Prohibited Distributions, to an agent designated by the Board


of Directors (the “Agent”). The Agent shall thereupon sell to a buyer or buyers, which may include the Corporation, the Excess Securities transferred to it in one or more arm’s-length transactions (on the public securities market on which such Excess Securities are traded, if possible, or otherwise privately); provided, however, that any such sale must not constitute a Prohibited Transfer and provided, further, that the Agent shall effect such sale or sales in an orderly fashion and shall not be required to effect any such sale within any specific time frame if, in the Agent’s discretion, such sale or sales would disrupt the market for the Corporation Securities or otherwise would adversely affect the value of the Corporation Securities. If the Purported Transferee has resold the Excess Securities before receiving the Corporation’s demand to surrender Excess Securities to the Agent, the Purported Transferee shall be deemed to have sold the Excess Securities for the Agent, and shall be required to transfer to the Agent any Prohibited Distributions and proceeds of such sale, except to the extent that the Corporation grants written permission to the Purported Transferee to retain a portion of such sales proceeds not exceeding the amount that the Purported Transferee would have received from the Agent pursuant to Section 8.6 if the Agent rather than the Purported Transferee had resold the Excess Securities.

Section 8.6 Application of Proceeds and Prohibited Distributions

The Agent shall apply any proceeds of a sale by it of Excess Securities and, if the Purported Transferee has previously resold the Excess Securities, any amounts received by it from a Purported Transferee, together, in either case, with any Prohibited Distributions, as follows: (a) first, such amounts shall be paid to the Agent to the extent necessary to cover its costs and expenses incurred in connection with its duties hereunder; (b) second, any remaining amounts shall be paid to the Purported Transferee, up to the amount paid by the Purported Transferee for the Excess Securities (or the fair market value at the time of the Transfer, in the event the purported Transfer of the Excess Securities was, in whole or in part, a gift, inheritance or similar Transfer) which amount shall be determined at the discretion of the Board of Directors; and (c) third, any remaining amounts shall be paid to one or more organizations qualifying under Section 501(c)(3) of the Code (or any comparable successor provision) selected by the Board of Directors. The Purported Transferee of Excess Securities shall have no claim, cause of action or any other recourse whatsoever against any transferor of Excess Securities. The Purported Transferee’s sole right with respect to such shares shall be limited to the amount payable to the Purported Transferee pursuant to this Section 8.6. In no event shall the proceeds of any sale of Excess Securities pursuant to this Section 8.6 inure to the benefit of the Corporation or the Agent, except to the extent used to cover costs and expenses incurred by the Agent in performing its duties hereunder.

Section 8.7 Modification of Remedies for Certain Indirect Transfers

In the event of any Transfer which does not involve a transfer of securities of the Corporation within the meaning of Delaware law (“Securities,” and individually, a “Security”) but which would cause a 4.9-percent Stockholder to violate a restriction on Transfers provided for in this Article 8, the application of Sections 8.5 and 8.6 shall be modified as described in this Section 8.7. In such case, no such 4.9-percent Stockholder shall be required to dispose of any interest that is not a Security, but such 4.9-percent Stockholder and/or any Person whose ownership of Securities is attributed to such 4.9-percent Stockholder shall be deemed to have disposed of and shall be required to dispose of sufficient Securities (which Securities shall be disposed of in the inverse order in which they were acquired) to cause such 4.9-percent Stockholder, following such disposition, not to be in violation of this Article 8. Such disposition shall be deemed to occur simultaneously with the Transfer giving rise to the application of this provision, and such number of Securities that are deemed to be disposed of shall be considered Excess Securities and shall be disposed of through the Agent as provided in Sections 8.5 and 8.6, except that the maximum aggregate amount payable either to such 4.9-percent Stockholder, or to such other Person that was the direct holder of such Excess Securities, in connection with such sale shall be the fair market value of such Excess Securities at the time of the purported Transfer. All expenses incurred by the Agent in disposing of such Excess Securities shall be paid out of any amounts due such 4.9-percent Stockholder or such other Person. The purpose of this Section 8.7 is to extend the restrictions in Sections 8.2 and 8.5 to situations in which there is a 4.9-percent Transaction without a direct Transfer of Securities, and this Section 8.7, along with the other provisions of this Article 8, shall be interpreted to produce the same results, with differences as the context requires, as a direct Transfer of Corporation Securities.


Section 8.8 Legal Proceedings; Prompt Enforcement

If the Purported Transferee fails to surrender the Excess Securities or the proceeds of a sale thereof to the Agent within thirty days from the date on which the Corporation makes a written demand pursuant to Section 8.5 (whether or not made within the time specified in Section 8.5), then the Corporation shall promptly take all cost effective actions which it believes are appropriate to enforce the provisions hereof, including the institution of legal proceedings to compel the surrender. Nothing in this Section 8.8 shall (i) be deemed inconsistent with any Transfer of the Excess Securities provided in this Article 8 being void ab initio, (ii) preclude the Corporation in its discretion from immediately bringing legal proceedings without a prior demand or (iii) cause any failure of the Corporation to act within the time periods set forth in Section 8.5 to constitute a waiver or loss of any right of the Corporation under this Article 8. The Board of Directors may authorize such additional actions as it deems advisable to give effect to the provisions of this Article 8.

Section 8.9 Liability

To the fullest extent permitted by law, any stockholder subject to the provisions of this Article 8 who knowingly violates the provisions of this Article 8 and any Persons controlling, controlled by or under common control with such stockholder shall be jointly and severally liable to the Corporation for, and shall indemnify and hold the Corporation harmless against, any and all damages suffered as a result of such violation, including but not limited to damages resulting from a reduction in, or elimination of, the Corporation’s ability to utilize its Tax Benefits, and attorneys’ and auditors’ fees incurred in connection with such violation.

Section 8.10 Obligation to Provide Information

As a condition to the registration of the Transfer of any Shares, any Person who is a beneficial, legal or record holder of Shares, and any proposed Transferee and any Person controlling, controlled by or under common control with the proposed Transferee, shall provide such information as the Corporation may request from time to time in order to determine compliance with this Article 8 or the status of the Tax Benefits of the Corporation.

Section 8.11 Legends

The Board of Directors may require that any certificates issued by the Corporation evidencing ownership of Shares that are subject to the restrictions on transfer and ownership contained in this Article 8 bear the following legend:

“THE BY-LAWS, AS AMENDED FROM TIME TO TIME (THE “BY-LAWS”), OF THE CORPORATION CONTAIN RESTRICTIONS PROHIBITING THE TRANSFER (AS DEFINED IN THE BY-LAWS) OF COMMON SHARES OF THE CORPORATION (INCLUDING THE CREATION OR GRANT OF CERTAIN OPTIONS, RIGHTS AND WARRANTS) WITHOUT THE PRIOR AUTHORIZATION OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE CORPORATION (THE “BOARD OF DIRECTORS”) IF SUCH TRANSFER AFFECTS THE PERCENTAGE OF STOCK OF THE CORPORATION (WITHIN THE MEANING OF SECTION 382 OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986, AS AMENDED (THE “CODE”) AND THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PROMULGATED THEREUNDER), THAT IS TREATED AS OWNED BY A 4.9 PERCENT STOCKHOLDER UNDER THE CODE AND SUCH REGULATIONS. IF THE TRANSFER RESTRICTIONS ARE VIOLATED, THEN THE TRANSFER WILL BE VOID AB INITIO AND THE PURPORTED TRANSFEREE OF THE SHARES WILL BE REQUIRED TO TRANSFER EXCESS SECURITIES (AS DEFINED IN THE BY-LAWS) TO THE CORPORATION’S AGENT. IN THE EVENT OF A TRANSFER WHICH DOES NOT INVOLVE SECURITIES OF THE CORPORATION WITHIN THE MEANING OF THE DELAWARE SECURITIES ACT (“SECURITIES”) BUT WHICH WOULD VIOLATE THE TRANSFER RESTRICTIONS, THE PURPORTED TRANSFEREE (OR THE RECORD OWNER) OF THE SECURITIES


WILL BE REQUIRED TO TRANSFER SUFFICIENT SECURITIES PURSUANT TO THE TERMS PROVIDED FOR IN THE CORPORATION’S BY-LAWS TO CAUSE THE 4.9 PERCENT STOCKHOLDER TO NO LONGER BE IN VIOLATION OF THE TRANSFER RESTRICTIONS. THE CORPORATION WILL FURNISH WITHOUT CHARGE TO THE HOLDER OF RECORD OF THIS CERTIFICATE A COPY OF THE BY-LAWS, CONTAINING THE ABOVE-REFERENCED TRANSFER RESTRICTIONS, UPON WRITTEN REQUEST TO THE CORPORATION AT ITS PRINCIPAL PLACE OF BUSINESS.”

The Board of Directors may also require that any certificates issued by the Corporation evidencing ownership of Shares that are subject to conditions imposed by the Board of Directors under Section 8.3 also bear a conspicuous legend referencing the applicable restrictions.

Section 8.12 Authority of Board of Directors

(a) The Board of Directors shall have the power to determine all matters necessary for assessing compliance with this Article 8, including, without limitation, (i) the identification of 4.9-percent Stockholders, (ii) whether a Transfer is a 4.9-percent Transaction or a Prohibited Transfer, (iii) the Percentage Share Ownership in the Corporation of any 4.9-percent Stockholder, (iv) whether an instrument constitutes a Corporation Security, (v) the amount (or fair market value) due to a Purported Transferee pursuant to Section 8.6, and (vi) any other matters which the Board of Directors determines to be relevant; and the good faith determination of the Board of Directors on such matters shall be conclusive and binding for all the purposes of this Article 8. In addition, the Board of Directors may, to the extent permitted by law, from time to time establish, modify, amend or rescind by-laws, regulations and procedures of the Corporation not inconsistent with the provisions of this Article 8 for purposes of determining whether any Transfer of Corporation Securities would jeopardize the Corporation’s ability to preserve and use the Tax Benefits and for the orderly application, administration and implementation of this Article 8.

(b) Nothing contained in this Article 8 shall limit the authority of the Board of Directors to take such other action to the extent permitted by law as it deems necessary or advisable to protect the Corporation and its stockholders in preserving the Tax Benefits. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, in the event of a change in law making one or more of the following actions necessary or desirable, the Board of Directors may, by adopting a written resolution, (i) accelerate or extend the Expiration Date, (ii) modify the ownership interest percentage in the Corporation or the Persons or groups covered by this Article 8, (iii) modify the definitions of any terms set forth in this Article 8 or (iv) modify the terms of this Article 8 as appropriate, in each case, in order to prevent an ownership change for purposes of Section 382 of the Code as a result of any changes in applicable Treasury Regulations or otherwise; provided, however, that the Board of Directors shall not cause there to be such acceleration, extension or modification unless it determines, by adopting a written resolution, that such action is reasonably necessary or advisable to preserve the Tax Benefits or that the continuation of these restrictions is no longer reasonably necessary for the preservation of the Tax Benefits. Stockholders of the Corporation shall be notified of such determination through a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission or such other method of notice as the Secretary of the Corporation shall deem appropriate.

(c) In the case of an ambiguity in the application of any of the provisions of this Article 8, including any definition used herein, the Board of Directors shall have the power to determine the application of such provisions with respect to any situation based on its reasonable belief, understanding or knowledge of the circumstances. In the event this Article 8 requires an action by the Board of Directors but fails to provide specific guidance with respect to such action, the Board of Directors shall have the power to determine the action to be taken so long as such action is not contrary to the provisions of this Article 8. All such actions, calculations, interpretations and determinations which are done or made by the Board of Directors in good faith shall be conclusive and binding on the Corporation, the Agent, and all other parties for all other purposes of this Article 8. The Board of Directors may delegate all or any portion of its duties and powers under this Article 8 to a committee of the Board of Directors as it deems necessary or advisable and, to the fullest extent permitted by law, may exercise the authority granted by this Article 8 through duly authorized officers or agents of the Corporation. Nothing in this Article 8 shall be construed to limit or restrict the Board of Directors in the exercise of its fiduciary duties under applicable law.


Section 8.13 Reliance

To the fullest extent permitted by law, the Corporation and the members of the Board of Directors shall be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the information, opinions, reports or statements of the chief executive officer, the chief financial officer, the chief accounting officer or the corporate controller of the Corporation and the Corporation’s legal counsel, independent auditors, transfer agent, investment bankers or other employees and agents in making the determinations and findings contemplated by this Article 8. The members of the Board of Directors shall not be responsible for any good faith errors made in connection therewith. For purposes of determining the existence and identity of, and the amount of any Corporation Securities owned by any stockholder, the Corporation is entitled to rely on the existence and absence of filings of Schedule 13D or 13G under the 1934 Act (or similar filings), as of any date, subject to its actual knowledge of the ownership of Corporation Securities.

Section 8.14 Benefits of This Article 8

Nothing in this Article 8 shall be construed to give to any Person other than the Corporation or the Agent any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Article 8. This Article 8 shall be for the sole and exclusive benefit of the Corporation and the Agent.

Section 8.15 Severability

The purpose of this Article 8 is to facilitate the Corporation’s ability to maintain or preserve its Tax Benefits. If any provision of this Article 8 or the application of any such provision to any Person or under any circumstance shall be held invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect by a court of competent jurisdiction, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provision of this Article 8.

Section 8.16 Waiver

With regard to any power, remedy or right provided herein or otherwise available to the Corporation or the Agent under this Article 8, (a) no waiver will be effective unless expressly contained in a writing signed by the waiving party; and (b) no alteration, modification or impairment will be implied by reason of any previous waiver, extension of time, delay or omission in exercise, or other indulgence.

ARTICLE 9

FISCAL YEAR

The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors from time to time, subject to applicable law.

ARTICLE 10

CORPORATE SEAL

The corporate seal, if any, shall be in such form as shall be approved from time to time by the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE 11

RELIANCE UPON BOOKS, REPORTS AND RECORDS

Each director, each member of any committee designated by the Board of Directors, and each officer of the Corporation shall, in the performance of his or her duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books of account or other records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of its officers or employees, or committees of the Board of Directors so designated, or by


any other person as to matters which such director or committee member reasonably believes are within such other person’s professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation.

ARTICLE 12

AMENDMENTS

These Bylaws, except as provided by applicable law or the Certificate of Incorporation, or as otherwise set forth in these Bylaws, may be amended or repealed at any regular or special meeting of the entire Board; provided, however, that (a) a written statement describing the change or amendment shall be made in the notice delivered to the directors of the meeting at which the change or amendment shall be acted upon; and (b) any Bylaw made by the Board may be altered, amended, rescinded or repealed by the holders of shares of capital stock presenting a majority of the securities entitled to vote thereon at any annual meeting or at any special meeting called for that purpose in accordance with the percentage requirements set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation and/or these Bylaws. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any provision of these Bylaws that contains a supermajority voting requirement shall only be altered, amended, rescinded or repealed by a vote of the Board or holders of capital stock entitled to vote thereon that is not less than the supermajority specified in such provision.

 

[As Filed: 03-13-2014]