CCRD

CONCORD COMMUNICATIONS, INC.


RESTATED BY-LAWS


ARTICLE I

Stockholders

1. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held on
the date and at the time fixed, from time to time, by the directors, provided
that the date so fixed is within six months of the end of the fiscal year of the
corporation. The purposes for which the annual meeting is to be held, in
addition to those prescribed by law, by the Articles of Organization or by these
By-Laws, may be specified by the Directors or the President. In the event an
annual meeting has not been held on the date fixed in these By-Laws, a special
meeting in lieu of the annual meeting may be held with all the force and effect
of an annual meeting.

2. Special Meetings. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by
the President or by the Directors. Upon written application of one or more
stockholders who hold at least 10% of the capital stock entitled to vote at a
meeting, a special meeting shall be called by the Clerk, or in case of the
death, absence, incapacity or refusal of the Clerk, by any other officer.
Notwithstanding the immediately preceding sentence, if the corporation has a
class of voting stock registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as
amended, upon written application of one or more stockholders who hold at least
40% in interest of the capital stock entitled to vote at a meeting, a special
meeting shall be called by the Clerk, or in case of the death, absence,
incapacity or refusal of the Clerk, by any other officer.

3. Place of Meetings. All meetings of stockholders shall be held at the
principal office of the corporation unless a different place (within or without
Massachusetts, but within the United States) is fixed by the Directors or the
President and stated in the notice of the meeting.
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4. Notice of Meetings. A written notice of the place, date and hour of
all meetings of stockholders stating the purpose of the meeting shall be given
by the Clerk or an Assistant Clerk or by the person calling the meeting at least
seven days before the meeting unless such longer period is required by law to
each stockholder entitled to vote thereat and to each stockholder who under the
law, under the Articles of Organization or under these By-Laws, is entitled to
such notice, by leaving such notice with him or at his residence or usual place
of business, or by mailing it, postage prepaid, and addressed to such
stockholder at his address as it appears in the records of the corporation.
Whenever notice of a meeting is required to be given a stockholder under any
provision of the Massachusetts Business Corporation Law or of the Articles of
Organization or these By-Laws, a written waiver thereof, executed before or
after the meeting by such stockholder or his attorney thereunto authorized and
filed with the records of the meeting, shall be deemed equivalent to such
notice.

5. Notice of Stockholder Business. The following provisions of this
Section 5 shall apply to the conduct of business at any meeting of the
stockholders (as used in this Section 5, the term annual meeting shall include a
special meeting in lieu of annual meeting).

(a) At any meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be
conducted as shall have been brought before the meeting (i) pursuant to the
corporation's notice of meeting, (ii) by or at the direction of the Board of
Directors or (iii) by any stockholder of the corporation who is a stockholder of
record at the time of giving of the notice provided for in paragraph (b) of this
Section 5, who shall be entitled to vote at such meeting and who complies with
the notice procedures set forth in paragraph (b) of this Section 5.

(b) For business to be properly brought before any meeting of the
stockholders by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of paragraph (a) of this
By-law, the stockholder must have
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given timely notice thereof in writing to the Clerk of the corporation. To be
timely, a stockholder's notice must be delivered to or mailed and received at
the principal executive offices of the corporation(i) in the case of any
annual meeting, not less than 60 days nor more than 90 days prior to the date
specified in Section 1 above for such annual meeting, regardless of any
postponements, deferrals or adjournments of that meeting to a later date;
provided, however, that if a special meeting in lieu of annual meeting of
stockholders is to be held on a date prior to the date specified in Section 1
above, and if less than seventy days' notice or prior public disclosure of the
date of such special meeting in lieu of annual meeting is given or made, notice
by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered or received not later than
the close of business on the tenth day following the earlier of the date on
which notice of the date of such special meeting in lieu of annual meeting was
mailed or the day on which public disclosure was made of the date of such
special meeting in lieu of annual meeting; and (ii) in the case of a special
meeting (other than a special meeting in lieu of an annual meeting), not later
than the tenth day following the earlier of the day on which notice of the date
of the scheduled meeting was mailed or the day on which public disclosure was
made of the date of the scheduled meeting. A stockholder's notice to the Clerk
shall set forth as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the
meeting, (i) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before
the meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting, (ii)
the name and address, as they appear on the corporation's books, of the
stockholder proposing such business, the name and address of the beneficial
owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made, and the name and address of
any other stockholders or beneficial owners known by such stockholder to be
supporting such proposal, (iii) the class and number of shares of the
corporation which are owned beneficially
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and of record by such stockholder of record, by the beneficial owner, if any, on
whose behalf the proposal is made and by any other stockholders or beneficial
owners known by such stockholder of record and/or of the beneficial owner, if
any, on whose behalf the proposal is made, in such proposed business and any
material interest of any other stockholders or beneficial owners known by such
stockholder to be supporting such proposal in such proposed business, to the
extent known by such stockholder.

(c) Notwithstanding anything in these By-Laws to the contrary, no
business shall be conducted at a meeting except in accordance with the
procedures set forth in these By-Laws. The person presiding at the meeting
shall, if the facts warrant, determine that business was not properly brought
before the meeting and in accordance with the procedures prescribed by these
By-laws, and if he should so determine, he shall so declare at the meeting and
any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be
transacted.

(d) This provision shall not prevent the consideration and approval or
disapproval at the meeting of reports of officers, Directors and committees of
the Board of Directors, but, in connection with such reports, no new business
shall be acted upon at such meeting unless properly brought before the meeting
as herein provided.

(e) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 5 to the
contrary, a stockholder shall comply with all applicable requirements of the
Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (or any successor provision), and
the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in
this Section 5.

6. Quorum. The holders of a majority in interest of all stock issued,
outstanding and entitled to vote at a meeting shall constitute a quorum, but a
lesser number may adjourn any meeting from time to time without further notice;
except that, if two or more classes of stock are
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outstanding and entitled to vote as separate classes, then in the case of each
such class, a quorum shall consist of the holders of a majority in interest of
the stock of that class issued, outstanding and entitled to vote.

7. Voting and Proxies. Each stockholder shall have one vote for each
share of stock entitled to vote owned by him and a proportionate vote for a
fractional share, unless otherwise provided by the Articles of Organization in
the case that the corporation has two or more classes or series of stock.
Capital stock shall not be voted if any installment of the subscription therefor
has been duly demanded in accordance with the law of the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts and is overdue and unpaid. Stockholders may vote either in person
or by written proxy dated not more than six months before the meeting named
therein. Proxies shall be filed with the clerk of the meeting, or of any
adjournment thereof, before being voted. Except as otherwise limited therein,
proxies shall entitle the persons named therein to vote at any adjournment of
such meeting but shall not be valid after final adjournment of such meeting. A
proxy with respect to stock held in the name of two or more persons shall be
valid if executed by any one of them unless at or prior to exercise of the proxy
the corporation receives a specific written notice to the contrary from any one
of them. A proxy purporting to be executed by or on behalf of a stockholder
shall be deemed valid unless challenged at or prior to its exercise and the
burden of proving invalidity shall rest on the challenger.

8. Action at Meeting. When a quorum is present, the holders of a
majority of the stock present or represented and voting on a matter (or if there
are two or more classes of stock entitled to vote as separate classes, then in
the case of each such class, the holders of a majority of the stock of that
class present or represented and voting on a matter), except where a larger vote
is required by law, the Articles of Organization or these By-Laws, shall decide
any matter to
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be voted on by the stockholders. Any election of directors or officers by the
stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by
stockholders entitled to vote at the election. Any such elections shall be by
ballot if so requested by any stockholder entitled to vote thereon. The
corporation shall not directly or indirectly vote any share of its own stock.

9. Action Without Meeting. Any action required or permitted to be taken
at any meeting of the stockholders may be taken without a meeting if all
stockholders entitled to vote on the matter consent to the action in writing and
the written consents are filed with the records of the meetings of stockholders.
Such consent shall be treated for all purposes as a vote at a meeting.

ARTICLE II

Directors

1. Powers. The business of the corporation shall be managed by a Board
of Directors who may exercise all the powers of the corporation except as
otherwise provided by law, by the Articles of Organization or by these By-Laws.
In the event of vacancy in the Board of Directors, the remaining Directors,
except as otherwise provided by law, may exercise the powers of the full Board
until the vacancy is filled.

2. Number, Election and Qualification; Vacancies, Enlargement of the
Board; Tenure; Removal. The number of Directors, and the provisions governing
their election and qualification, vacancies, enlargement of the Board of
Directors and their tenure and removal shall be as provided by law and as set
forth in the Articles of Organization.

3. Meetings. Regular meetings of the Directors may be held without call
or notice at such places and at such times as the Directors may from time to
time determine, provided that any Director who is absent when such determination
is made shall be given notice of the
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determination. A regular meeting of the Directors may be held without a call or
notice at the same place as the annual meeting of stockholders.

Special meetings of the Directors may be held at any time and place
designated in a call by the President or two or more Directors.

4. Telephone Conference Meetings. Members of the Board of Directors may
participate in a meeting of the board by means of a conference telephone or
similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in
the meeting can hear each other at the same time and participation by such means
shall constitute presence in person at a meeting.

5. Notice of Meetings. Notice of all special meetings of the Directors
shall be given to each Director by the Secretary, or Assistant Secretary, or if
there be no Secretary or Assistant Secretary, by the Clerk, or Assistant Clerk,
or in case of the death, absence, incapacity or refusal of such persons, by the
officer or one of the Directors calling the meeting. Notice shall be given to
each Director in person or by telephone or by telegram sent to his business or
home address at least twenty-four hours in advance of the meeting, or by written
notice mailed to his business or home address at least forty-eight hours in
advance of the meeting. Notice of a meeting need not be given to any Director if
a written waiver of notice, executed by him before or after the meeting, is
filed with the records of the meeting, or to any Director who attends the
meeting without protesting prior thereto or at its commencement the lack of
notice to him. A notice or waiver of notice of a Directors' meeting need not
specify the purposes of the meeting.

6. Quorum. At any meeting of the Directors, a majority of the Directors
then in office shall constitute a quorum. Less than a quorum may adjourn any
meeting from time to time without further notice.
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7. Action at Meeting. At any meeting of the Directors at which a quorum
is present, a majority of the Directors present may take any action on behalf of
the Board except to the extent that a larger number is required by law or the
Articles of Organization or these By-Laws.

8. Action by Consent. Any action required or permitted to be taken at
any meeting of the Directors may be taken without a meeting, if all the
Directors consent to the action in writing and the written consents are filed
with the records of the meetings of Directors. Such consents shall be treated
for all purposes as a vote at a meeting.

9. Committees. The Directors may, by vote of a majority of the
Directors then in office, elect from their number an executive or other
committees and may by like vote delegate thereto some or all of their powers
except those which by law, the Articles of Organization or these By-Laws they
are prohibited from delegating to such committee. Except as the Directors may
otherwise determine, any such committee may make rules for the conduct of its
business, but unless otherwise provided by the Directors or in such rules, its
business shall be conducted as nearly as may be in the same manner as is
provided by these By-Laws for the Directors.

ARTICLE III

Officers

1. Enumeration. The officers of the corporation shall consist of a
President, a Treasurer, a Clerk, and such other officers, including a Chairman
of the Board of Directors, one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant Treasurers,
Assistant Clerks, Secretary and Assistant Secretaries as the Directors may
determine.

2. Election. The President, Treasurer and Clerk shall be elected
annually by the Directors at their first meeting following the annual meeting of
stockholders. Other officers may be chosen by the Directors at such meeting or
at any other meeting.
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3. Qualification. The President may, but need not be, a Director. No
officer need be a stockholder. Any two or more offices may be held by the same
person, provided that the President and Clerk shall not be the same person. The
Clerk shall be a resident of Massachusetts unless the corporation has a resident
agent appointed for the purpose of service of process. Any officer may be
required by the Directors to give bond for the faithful performance of his
duties to the corporation in such amount and with such sureties as the Directors
may determine.

4. Tenure. Except as otherwise provided by law, by the Articles of
Organization or by these By-Laws, the President, Treasurer and Clerk shall hold
office until the first meeting of the Directors following the next annual
meeting of stockholders and until their successors are chosen and qualified; and
all other officers shall hold office until the first meeting of the Directors
following the next annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors are
chosen and qualified, unless a shorter term is specified in the vote choosing or
appointing them. Any officer may resign by delivering his written resignation to
the corporation at its principal office or to the President, Clerk or Secretary,
and such resignation shall be effective upon receipt unless it is specified to
be effective at some other time or upon the happening of some other event.

5. Removal. The Directors may remove any officer with or without cause
by vote of a majority of the Directors then in office; provided, that an officer
may be removed for cause only after a reasonable notice and opportunity to be
heard before the Board of Directors.

6. President, Chairman of the Board, and Vice-President. The President
shall, unless otherwise provided by the Directors, be the chief executive
officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the direction of the Directors,
have general supervision and control of its business. Unless otherwise provided
by the Directors he shall preside, when present, at all meetings of
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stockholders and, unless a Chairman of the Board has been elected and is
present, of the Directors.

If a Chairman of the Board of Directors is elected he shall preside at
all meetings of the Board of Directors at which he is present. The Chairman
shall have such other powers as the Directors may from time to time designate.

Any Vice-President shall have such powers as the Directors may from
time to time designate.

7. Treasurer and Assistant Treasurer. The Treasurer shall, subject to
the direction of the Directors, have general charge of the financial affairs of
the corporation and shall cause accurate books of account to be kept. He shall
have custody of all funds, securities, and valuable documents of the
corporation, except as the Directors may otherwise provide.

Any Assistant Treasurer shall have such powers as the Directors may
from time to time designate.

8. Clerk and Assistant Clerks. The Clerk shall record all proceedings
of the stockholders in a book to be kept therefor. Unless a transfer agent is
appointed, the Clerk shall keep or cause to be kept in Massachusetts, at the
principal office of the corporation or at his office, the stock and transfer
records of the corporation, in which are contained the names of all stockholders
and the record address and the amount of stock held by each.

In case a Secretary is not elected, the Clerk shall record all
proceedings of the Directors in a book to be kept therefor.

In the absence of the Clerk from any meeting of the stockholders, an
Assistant Clerk, if one be elected, otherwise a Temporary Clerk designated by
the person presiding at the meeting,
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shall perform the duties of the Clerk. Any Assistant Clerk shall have such
additional powers as the Directors may from time to time designate.

9. Secretary and Assistant Secretaries. If a Secretary is elected, he
shall keep a record of the meetings of the Directors and in his absence, an
Assistant Secretary, if one be elected, otherwise a Temporary Secretary
designated by the person presiding at the meeting, shall keep a record of the
meetings of the Directors.

Any Assistant Secretary shall have such additional powers as the
Directors may from time to time designate.

10. Other Powers and Duties. Each officer shall, subject to these
By-Laws, have in addition to the duties and powers specifically set forth in
these By-Laws, such duties and powers as are customarily incident to his office,
and such duties and powers as the Directors may from time to time designate.
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ARTICLE IV

Capital Stock

1. Certificates of Stock. Subject to the provisions of Section 2 below,
each stockholder shall be entitled to a certificate of the capital stock of the
corporation in such form as may be prescribed from time to time by the
Directors. The certificate shall be signed by the President or a Vice-President,
and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer; provided, however, such
signatures may be facsimiles if the certificate is signed by a transfer agent,
or by a registrar, other than a Director, officer or employee of the
corporation. In case any officer who has signed or whose facsimile signature has
been placed on such certificate shall have ceased to be such officer before such
certificate is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect
as if he were such officer at the time of its issue.

Every certificate issued for shares of stock at a time when such shares
are subject to any restriction on transfer pursuant to the Articles of
Organization, these By-Laws or any agreement to which the corporation is a party
shall have the restriction noted conspicuously on the certificate and shall also
set forth on the face or back of the certificate either the full text of the
restriction or a statement of the existence of such restriction and a statement
that the corporation will furnish a copy thereof to the holder of such
certificate upon written request and without charge. Every stock certificate
issued by the corporation at a time when it is authorized to issue more than one
class or series of stock shall set forth upon the face or back of the
certificate either the full text of the preferences, voting powers,
qualifications and special and relative rights of the shares of each class and
series, if any, authorized to be issued, as set forth in the Articles of
Organization, or a statement of the existence of such preferences, powers,
qualifications, and
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rights, and a statement that the corporation will furnish a copy thereof to the
holder of such certificate upon written request and without charge.

2. Stockholder Open Accounts. The corporation may maintain or cause to
be maintained stockholder open accounts in which may be recorded all
stockholders' ownership of stock and all changes therein. Certificates need not
be issued for shares so recorded in a stockholder open account unless requested
by the stockholder.

3. Transfers. Subject to the restrictions, if any, stated or noted on
the stock certificates, shares of stock may be transferred in the records of the
corporation by the surrender to the corporation or its transfer agent of the
certificate therefor, properly endorsed or accompanied by a written assignment
and power of attorney properly executed, with necessary transfer stamps affixed,
and with such proof of the authenticity of signature as the corporation or its
transfer agent may reasonably require. When such stock certificates are thus
properly surrendered to the corporation or its transfer agent, the corporation
or transfer agent shall cause the records of the corporation to reflect the
transfer of the shares of stock. Except as may be otherwise required by law, by
the Articles of Organization or by these By-Laws, the corporation shall be
entitled to treat the record holder of stock as shown in its records as the
owner of such stock for all purposes, including the payment of dividends and the
right to vote with respect thereof, regardless of any transfer, pledge or other
disposition of such stock, until the shares have been transferred on the books
of the corporation in accordance with the requirements of these By-Laws.

It shall be the duty of each stockholder to notify the corporation of
his post office address.

4. Record Date. The Directors may fix in advance a time which shall be
not more than sixty (60) days before the date of any meeting of stockholders or
the date for the payment of
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any dividend or the making of any distribution to stockholders or the last day
on which the consent or dissent of stockholders may be effectively expressed for
any purpose, as the record date for determining the stockholders having the
right to notice of and to vote at such meeting and any adjournment thereof or
the right to receive such dividend or distribution or the right to give such
consent or dissent. In such case only stockholders of record on such record date
shall have such right, notwithstanding any transfer of stock on the books of the
corporation after the record date. Without fixing such record date the Directors
may for any of such purposes close the transfer books for all or any part of
such period.

If no record date is fixed and the transfer books are not closed, the
record date for determining stockholders having the right to notice of or to
vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day
next preceding the day on which notice is given, and the record date for
determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business
on the day on which the Board of Directors acts with respect thereto.

5. Replacement of Certificates. In case of the alleged loss, mutilation
or destruction of a certificate of stock, a duplicate certificate may be issued
in place thereof, upon such terms and conditions as the Directors may prescribe.

6. Issue of Capital Stock. The whole or any part of the then authorized
but unissued shares of each class of stock may be issued at any time or from
time to time by the Board of Directors without action by the stockholders.

7. Reacquisition of Stock. Shares of stock previously issued which have
been reacquired by the corporation, may be restored to the status of authorized
but unissued shares by vote of the Board of Directors, without amendment of the
Articles of Organization.
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ARTICLE V

Provisions Relative to Directors,

Officers, Stockholders and Employees


1. Certain Contracts and Transactions. In the absence of fraud or bad
faith, no contract or transaction by this corporation shall be void, voidable or
in any way affected by reason of the fact that the contract or transaction is
(a) with one or more of its officers, Directors, stockholders or employees, (b)
with a person who is in any way interested in this corporation, or (c) with a
corporation, organization or other concern in which an officer, Director,
stockholder or employee of this corporation is an officer, director,
stockholder, employee or in any way interested. The provisions of this section
shall apply notwithstanding the fact that the presence of a Director or
stockholder, with whom a contract or transaction is made or entered into or who
is an officer, director, stockholder or employee of a corporation, organization
or other concern with which a contract or transaction is made or entered into or
who is in any way interested in such contract or transaction, was necessary to
constitute a quorum at the meeting of the Directors (or any authorized committee
thereof) or stockholders at which such contract or transaction was authorized
and/or that the vote of such Director or stockholder was necessary for the
adoption of such contract or transaction, provided that if said interest was
material, it shall have been known or disclosed to the Directors or stockholders
voting at said meeting on said contract or transaction. A general notice to any
person voting on said contract or transaction that an officer, Director,
stockholder or employee has a material interest in any corporation, organization
or other concern shall be sufficient disclosure as to such officer, Director,
stockholder or employee with respect to all contracts and transactions with such
corporation, organization or other concern. This section shall be subject to
amendment or repeal only by action of the stockholders.
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2. Indemnification. Each Director, officer, employee and other agent of
the corporation, and any person who, at the request of the corporation, serves
as a director, officer, employee or other agent of another organization in which
the corporation directly or indirectly owns shares or of which it is a creditor
shall be indemnified by the corporation against any cost, expense (including
attorneys' fees), judgment, liability and/or amount paid in settlement
reasonably incurred by or imposed upon him in connection with any action, suit
or proceeding (including any proceeding before any administrative or legislative
body or agency), to which he may be made a party or otherwise involved or with
which he shall be threatened, by reason of his being, or related to his status
as a director, officer, employee or other agent of the corporation or of any
other organization in which the corporation directly or indirectly owns shares
or of which the corporation is a creditor, which other organization he serves or
has served as director, officer, employee or other agent at the request of the
corporation (whether or not he continues to be an officer, Director, employee or
other agent of the corporation or such other organization at the time such
action, suit or proceeding is brought or threatened), unless such
indemnification is prohibited by the Business Corporation Law of the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The foregoing right of indemnification shall be
in addition to any rights to which any such person may otherwise be entitled and
shall inure to the benefit of the executors or administrators of each such
person. The corporation may pay the expenses incurred by any such person in
defending a civil or criminal action, suit or proceeding in advance of the final
disposition of such action, suit, or proceeding, upon receipt of an undertaking
by such person to repay such payment if it is determined that such person is not
entitled to indemnification hereunder. This section shall be subject to
amendment or repeal only by action of the stockholders, and any such amendment
or
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repeal shall not affect the rights arising hereunder prior to the effective date
of the amendment or repeal.

ARTICLE VI

Miscellaneous Provisions

1. Fiscal Year. Except as from time to time otherwise determined by the
Directors, the fiscal year of the corporation shall end on December 31 in each
year. Following any change in the fiscal year previously adopted, a certificate
of such change, signed under the penalties of perjury by the Clerk or an
Assistant Clerk, shall be filed forthwith with the state secretary.

2. Seal. The seal of this corporation shall, subject to alteration by
the Directors, bear its name, the word "Massachusetts," and the year of its
incorporation.

3. Execution of Instruments. All deeds, leases, transfers, contracts,
bonds, notes and other obligations authorized to be executed by an officer of
the corporation in its behalf shall be signed by the President or the Treasurer
except as the Directors may generally or in particular cases otherwise
determine.

4. Voting of Securities. Except as the Directors may otherwise
designate, the President or Treasurer may waive notice of, and appoint any
person or persons to act as proxy or attorney-in-fact for this corporation (with
or without power of substitution) at any meeting of stockholders or shareholders
of any other corporation or organization, the securities of which may be held by
this corporation.

5. Corporate Records. The original, or attested copies, of the Articles
of Organization, By-Laws and records of all meetings of incorporators and
stockholders, and the stock and transfer records, which shall contain the names
of all stockholders and the record address and the amount of stock held by each,
shall be kept in Massachusetts at the principal
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office of the corporation or at an office of its transfer agent or of the Clerk
or of its resident agent. Said copies and records need not all be kept in the
same office. They shall be available at all reasonable times to the inspection
of any stockholder for any proper purpose but not to secure a list of
stockholders or other information for the purpose of selling said list or
information or copies thereof or of using the same for a purpose other than in
the interest of the applicant, as a stockholder, relative to the affairs of the
corporation.

6. Articles of Organization. All references in these By-Laws to the
Articles of Organization shall be deemed to refer to the Articles of
Organization of the corporation, as amended and in effect from time to time.

7. Amendments. These By-Laws, to the extent provided in these By-Laws,
may be amended or repealed, in whole or in part, and new By-Laws adopted either
(a) by the stockholders at any meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative
vote of the holders of at least a majority in interest of the capital stock
present and entitled to vote, provided that notice of the proposed amendment or
repeal or of the proposed making of new By-Laws shall have been given in the
notice of such meeting, or (b) if so authorized by the Articles of Organization,
by the Board of Directors at any meeting of the Board by the affirmative vote of
a majority of the Directors then in office, but no amendment or repeal of a
By-law shall be voted by the Board of Directors and no new By-law shall be made
by the Board of Directors which alters the provisions of these By-Laws with
respect to removal of Directors, or the election of committees by Directors and
the delegation of powers thereto, nor shall the Board of Directors make, amend
or repeal any provision of the By-Laws which by law, the Articles of
Organization or the By-Laws requires action by the stockholders. Not later than
the time of giving notice of the meeting of stockholders next following the
making, amending, or repealing by the Directors of any By-law,
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notice thereof stating the substance of such change shall be given to all
stockholders entitled to vote on amending the By-Laws. Any By-law or amendment
of a By-law made by the Board of Directors may be amended or repealed by the
stockholders by affirmative vote as above provided in this Section 7.

8. 1987 Massachusetts Control Share Acquisition Act. The 1987
Massachusetts Control Share Acquisition Act, Chapter 110D of the Massachusetts
General Laws, as it may be amended from time to time, shall not apply to the
corporation.