BY-LAWS

 

OF

 

AVID TECHNOLOGY, INC.

 

(hereinafter called the "Corporation")

 

 

 

ARTICLE I

 

 

OFFICES

 

Section 1.  Registered Office.  The registered office of the Corporation shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, State of Delaware.

 

Section 2.  Other Offices.  The Corporation may also have offices at such other places, both within and without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine.

 

 

 

ARTICLE II

 

 

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

 

Section 1.  Place of Meetings.  Meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors or for any other purpose shall be held at such time and place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors or the President.  The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of the stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication in the manner authorized by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the "DGCL").

 

Section 2.  Annual Meetings.  The Annual Meeting of Stockholders for the election of directors shall be held on such date and at such time as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors or the President.  Any other proper business may be transacted at the Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

 

 

 


 

Section 3.  Special Meetings.  Unless otherwise required by law or by the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation, as amended and restated from time to time (the "Certificate of Incorporation"), Special Meetings of Stockholders, for any purpose or purposes, may be called by either (i) the Chairman, if there be one, or (ii) the President, and shall be called by any such officer at the request in writing of (i) the Board of Directors or (ii) a committee of the Board of Directors that has been duly designated by the Board of Directors and whose powers and authority include the power to call such meetings.  Such request shall state the purpose or purposes of the proposed meeting.  At a Special Meeting of Stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall be specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto).

 

Section 4.  Nature of Business at Meetings of Stockholders.  Only such business (other than nominations for election to the Board of Directors, which must comply with the provisions of Section 5 of this Article II) may be transacted at an Annual Meeting of Stockholders as is either (a) specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof), (b) otherwise properly brought before the Annual Meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof), or (c) otherwise properly brought before the Annual Meeting by any stockholder of the Corporation (i) who is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 4 of this Article II and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at such Annual Meeting and (ii) who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 4 of this Article II.

 

In addition to any other applicable requirements, for business to be properly brought before an Annual Meeting by a stockholder, such stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the Secretary of the Corporation.

 

To be timely, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must be delivered to or be mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred and twenty (120) days prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding Annual Meeting of Stockholders; provided, however, that in the event that the Annual Meeting is called for a date that is not within twenty-five (25) days before or after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder in order to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such notice of the date of the Annual Meeting was mailed or such public disclosure of the date of the Annual Meeting was made, whichever first occurs.  In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of an Annual Meeting, or the public announcement of such an adjournment or postponement, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder's notice as described above.

 

 

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To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must set forth the following information: (a) as to each matter such stockholder proposes to bring before the Annual Meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the Annual Meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the Annual Meeting, and (b) as to the stockholder giving notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is being made, (i) the name and address of such person, (ii) (A) the class or series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such person and any affiliates or associates of such person, (B) the name of each nominee holder of shares of all stock of the Corporation owned beneficially but not of record by such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, and the number of such shares of stock of the Corporation held by each such nominee holder, (C) whether and the extent to which any derivative instrument, swap, option, warrant, short interest, hedge or profit interest or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation and (D) whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares of stock of the Corporation) has been made by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to mitigate loss to, or to manage risk or benefit of stock price changes for, such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation; (iii) a description of all agreements, arrangements, or understandings (whether written or oral) between or among such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business and any material interest of such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, in such business, including any anticipated benefit therefrom to such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, (iv) a representation that the stockholder giving notice intends to appear in person or by proxy at the Annual Meeting to bring such business before the meeting; and (v) any other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies by such person with respect to the proposed business to be brought by such person before the Annual Meeting pursuant to Section 14 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

A stockholder providing notice of business proposed to be brought before an Annual Meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 4 of this Article II shall be true and correct as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting and such update and supplement shall be delivered to or be mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting.

 

No business shall be conducted at the Annual Meeting of Stockholders except business brought before the Annual Meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 4 of this Article II; provided, however, that, once business has been properly brought before the Annual Meeting in accordance with such procedures, nothing in this Section 4 of this Article II shall be deemed to preclude discussion by any stockholder of any such business.  If the chairman of an Annual Meeting determines that business was not properly brought before the Annual Meeting in accordance with the foregoing procedures, the chairman shall declare to the meeting that the business was not properly brought before the meeting and such business shall not be transacted.

 

 

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Nothing contained in this Section 4 of this Article II shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation's proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act (or any successor provision of law).

 

Section 5.  Nomination of Directors.  Only persons who are nominated in accordance with the following procedures shall be eligible for election as directors of the Corporation, except as may be otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation with respect to the right of holders of preferred stock of the Corporation to nominate and elect a specified number of directors in certain circumstances.  Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at any Annual Meeting of Stockholders, or at any Special Meeting of Stockholders called for the purpose of electing directors, (a) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors (or any duly authorized committee thereof) or (b) by any stockholder of the Corporation (i) who is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 5 of this Article II and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at such Annual Meeting or Special Meeting and (ii) who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 5 of this Article II.

 

In addition to any other applicable requirements, for a nomination to be made by a stockholder, such stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the Secretary of the Corporation.

 

To be timely, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must be delivered to or be mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the Corporation (a) in the case of an Annual Meeting, not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred and twenty (120) days prior to the anniversary date of the immediately preceding Annual Meeting of Stockholders; provided, however, that in the event that the Annual Meeting is called for a date that is not within twenty-five (25) days before or after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder in order to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such notice of the date of the Annual Meeting was mailed or such public disclosure of the date of the Annual Meeting was made, whichever first occurs; and (b) in the case of a Special Meeting of Stockholders called for the purpose of electing directors, not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which notice of the date of the Special Meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of the Special Meeting was made, whichever first occurs.  In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of an Annual Meeting or a Special Meeting called for the purpose of electing directors, or the public announcement of such an adjournment or postponement, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder's notice as described above.

 

 

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To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must set forth the following information: (a) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election as a director (i) the name, age, business address and residence address of such person, (ii) the principal occupation or employment of such person, (iii) (A) the class or series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such person and any affiliates or associates of such person, (B) the name of each nominee holder of shares of all stock of the Corporation owned beneficially but not of record by such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, and the number of such shares of stock of the Corporation held by each such nominee holder, (C) whether and the extent to which any derivative instrument, swap, option, warrant, short interest, hedge or profit interest or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation and (D) whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares of stock of the Corporation) has been made by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to mitigate loss to, or to manage risk or benefit of stock price changes for, such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation; and (iv) any other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of directors pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; and (b) as to the stockholder giving the notice, and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made, (i) the name and record address of the stockholder giving the notice and the name and principal place of business of such beneficial owner; (ii) (A) the class or series and number of all shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially or of record by such person and any affiliates or associates of such person, (B) the name of each nominee holder of shares of the Corporation owned beneficially but not of record by such person or any affiliates or associates of such person, and the number of shares of stock of the Corporation held by each such nominee holder, (C) whether and the extent to which any derivative instrument, swap, option, warrant, short interest, hedge or profit interest or other transaction has been entered into by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation and (D) whether and the extent to which any other transaction, agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares of stock of the Corporation) has been made by or on behalf of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, the effect or intent of any of the foregoing being to mitigate loss to, or to manage risk or benefit of stock price changes for, such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, or to increase or decrease the voting power or pecuniary or economic interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, with respect to stock of the Corporation; (iii) a description of all agreements, arrangements, or understandings (whether written or oral) between such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, and any proposed nominee or any other person or persons (including their names) pursuant to which the nomination(s) are being made by such person, and any material interest of such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person, in such nomination, including any anticipated benefit therefrom to such person, or any affiliates or associates of such person; (iv) a representation that the stockholder giving notice intends to appear in person or by proxy at the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting to nominate the persons named in its notice; and (v) any other information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies for election of directors pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.  Such notice must be accompanied by a written consent of each proposed nominee to being named as a nominee and to serve as a director if elected.

 

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A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at an Annual Meeting or Special Meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 5 of this Article II shall be true and correct as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting or Special Meeting, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to or be mailed and received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to receive notice of such Annual Meeting or Special Meeting.

 

No person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 5 of this Article II.  If the Chairman of the meeting determines that a nomination was not made in accordance with the foregoing procedures, the Chairman shall declare to the meeting that the nomination was defective and such defective nomination shall be disregarded.

 

Section 6.  Notice.  Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given which shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and, in the case of a Special Meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called.  Unless otherwise required by law, written notice of any meeting shall be given not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to notice of and to vote at such meeting.

 

Section 7.  Adjournments.  Any meeting of the stockholders may be adjourned from time to time to reconvene at the same or some other place, and notice need not be given of any such adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken.  At the adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting.  If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, notice of the adjourned meeting in accordance with the requirements of Section 6 hereof shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to notice of and to vote at the meeting.

 

Section 8.  Quorum.  Unless otherwise required by applicable law or the Certificate of Incorporation, the holders of a majority of the Corporation's capital stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business.  A quorum, once established, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum.  If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, in the manner provided in Section 7 hereof, until a quorum shall be present or represented.

 

 

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Section 9.  Voting.  Unless otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, or permitted by the rules of any stock exchange on which the Corporation's shares are listed and traded, any question brought before any meeting of the stockholders, other than the election of directors, shall be decided by the vote of the holders of a majority of the total number of votes cast on the question, voting as a single class.  Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, and subject to Section 12 of this Article II, each stockholder represented at a meeting of the stockholders shall be entitled to cast one (1) vote for each share of the capital stock entitled to vote thereat held by such stockholder.  Such votes may be cast in person or by proxy as provided in Section 10 of this Article II.  The Board of Directors, in its discretion, or the officer of the Corporation presiding at a meeting of the stockholders, in such officer's discretion, may require that any votes cast at such meeting shall be cast by written ballot.  Other than in a Contested Election Meeting (as defined below), a nominee for director shall be elected to the Board of Directors if the votes cast “for” such nominee’s election exceed the votes cast “against” such nominee’s election (with “abstentions,” “broker non-votes” and “withheld votes” not counted as a vote “for” or “against” such nominee’s election).  In a Contested Election Meeting, when a quorum is present, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast at such Contested Election Meeting.  If directors are to be elected by a plurality of the votes cast, stockholders shall not be permitted to vote “against” a nominee.  A meeting of stockholders shall be a “Contested Election Meeting” if there are more persons nominated for election as directors at such meeting than there are directors to be elected at such meeting, determined as of the tenth day preceding the date of the corporation’s first notice to stockholders of such meeting sent pursuant to Section 6 of this Article II (the “Determination Date”); provided, however, that if in accordance with Section 5 of this Article II stockholders are entitled to nominate persons for election as director during a period of time that ends after the otherwise applicable Determination Date, the Determination Date shall instead be as of the end of such period. No ballot shall be required for any election unless requested by a stockholder present or represented at the meeting and entitled to vote in the election.

 

Section 10.  Proxies.  Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of the stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted upon after three years from its date, unless such proxy provides for a longer period.  Without limiting the manner in which a stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy, the following shall constitute a valid means by which a stockholder may grant such authority:

 

(i) A stockholder may execute a writing authorizing another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy.  Execution may be accomplished by the stockholder or such stockholder's authorized officer, director, employee or agent signing such writing or causing such person's signature to be affixed to such writing by any reasonable means, including, but not limited to, by facsimile signature.

(ii) A stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy by transmitting or authorizing the transmission of a telegram, cablegram or other means of electronic transmission to the person who will be the holder of the proxy or to a proxy solicitation firm, proxy support service organization or like agent duly authorized by the person who will be the holder of the proxy to receive such transmission, provided that any such telegram, cablegram or other means of electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the telegram, cablegram or other electronic transmission was authorized by the stockholder.  If it is determined that such telegrams, cablegrams or other electronic transmissions are valid, the inspectors or, if there are no inspectors, such other persons making that determination shall specify the information on which they relied.

 

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Any copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reliable reproduction of the writing or transmission authorizing another person or persons to act as proxy for a stockholder may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing or transmission for any and all purposes for which the original writing or transmission could be used; provided, however, that such copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing or transmission.

 

Section 11.  List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote.  The officer of the Corporation who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of the stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder.  Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Corporation.  In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation.  If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.  If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.

 

Section 12.  Record Date.  In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of the stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting.  If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of the stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.  A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of the stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

 

Section 13.  Stock Ledger.  The stock ledger of the Corporation shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the stock ledger, the list required by Section 11 of this Article II or the books of the Corporation, or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of the stockholders.

 

 

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Section 14.  Conduct of Meetings.  The Board of Directors of the Corporation may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of any meeting of the stockholders as it shall deem appropriate.  Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of any meeting of the stockholders shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting.  Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following:  (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) the determination of when the polls shall open and close for any given matter to be voted on at the meeting; (iii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iv) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall determine; (v) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (vi) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants.

 

Section 15.  Inspectors of Election.  In advance of any meeting of the stockholders, the Board of Directors, by resolution, the Chairman or the President shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof.  One or more other persons may be designated as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act.  If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of the stockholders, the chairman of the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting.  Unless otherwise required by applicable law, inspectors may be officers, employees or agents of the Corporation.  Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of the duties of inspector, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector's ability.  The inspector shall have the duties prescribed by law and shall take charge of the polls and, when the vote is completed, shall make a certificate of the result of the vote taken and of such other facts as may be required by applicable law.

 

 

ARTICLE III

 

 

DIRECTORS

 

Section 1.  Number and Election of Directors.  The Board of Directors shall consist of not less than three nor more than fifteen members, the exact number of which shall be fixed from time to time by a majority of the Board of Directors then in office.  The directors shall be divided into three classes, designated Class I, Class II and Class III.  Each class shall consist, as nearly as may be possible, of one-third of the total number of directors constituting the entire Board of Directors.  At each Annual Meeting of Stockholders, successors to the class of directors whose term expires at that Annual Meeting shall be elected for a three-year term and until their successors are duly elected and qualified.  If the number of directors is changed, any increase or decrease shall be apportioned among the classes so as to maintain the number of directors in each class as nearly equal as possible, and any additional director of any class elected to fill a vacancy resulting from an increase in such class or from the removal from office, death, disability, resignation or disqualification of a director or other cause shall hold office for a term that shall coincide with the remaining term of that class, but in no case will a decrease in the number of directors have the effect of removing or shortening the term of any incumbent director.  Directors need not be stockholders.

 

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Section 2.  Vacancies.  Any vacancy on the Board of Directors that results from an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority of the Board of Directors then in office, provided that a quorum is present, and any other vacancy occurring on the Board of Directors may be filled by a majority of the Board of Directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director.  Any director of any class elected to fill a vacancy resulting from an increase in the number of directors of such class shall hold office for a term that shall coincide with the remaining term of that class.  Any director elected to fill a vacancy not resulting from an increase in the number of directors shall have the same remaining term as that of his or her predecessor.

 

Section 3.  Duties and Powers.  The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors which may exercise all such powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-Laws required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

 

Section 4.  Meetings.  The Board of Directors and any committee thereof may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware.  Regular meetings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof may be held without notice at such time and at such place as may from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors or such committee, respectively.   Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman, if there be one, the President or by two or more members of the Board of Directors.  Special meetings of any committee of the Board of Directors may be called by the chairman of such committee, if there be one, the President, or any director serving on such committee.  Notice thereof stating the place, date and hour of the meeting shall be given to each director (or, in the case of a committee, to each member of such committee) either by mail not less than forty-eight (48) hours before the date of the meeting, by telephone, telegram or electronic means on twenty-four (24) hours' notice, or on such shorter notice as the person or persons calling such meeting may deem necessary or appropriate in the circumstances.

 

Section 5.  Organization.  At each meeting of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the chairman of such committee, as the case may be, or, in his or her absence or if there be none, a director chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall act as chairman.  Except as provided below, the Secretary of the Corporation shall act as secretary at each meeting of the Board of Directors and of each committee thereof.   In case the Secretary shall be absent from any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof, an Assistant Secretary shall perform the duties of secretary at such meeting; and in the absence from any such meeting of the Secretary and all the Assistant Secretaries, the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, the members of each committee of the Board of Directors may appoint any person to act as secretary of any meeting of such committee and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of the Corporation may, but need not if such committee so elects, serve in such capacity.

 

 

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Section 6.  Resignations and Removals of Directors.  Any director of the Corporation may resign from the Board of Directors or any committee thereof at any time, by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Chairman of the Board of Directors, if there be one, the President or the Secretary of the Corporation and, in the case of a committee, to the chairman of such committee, if there be one.  Such resignation shall take effect at the time therein specified or, if no time is specified, immediately; and, unless otherwise specified in such notice, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.  Except as otherwise required by applicable law and subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of shares of preferred stock then outstanding, any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause, and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six and two-thirds percent (66 2/3%) of the voting power of the issued and outstanding capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote in the election of directors.  Any director serving on a committee of the Board of Directors may be removed from such committee at any time by the Board of Directors.

 

Section 7.  Quorum.  Except as otherwise required by law, or the Certificate of Incorporation or the rules and regulations of any securities exchange or quotation system on which the Corporation's securities are listed or quoted for trading, at all meetings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, a  majority of the entire Board of Directors or a majority of the directors constituting such committee, as the case may be, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a majority of the directors or committee members present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors or such committee, as applicable.  If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting of the time and place of the adjourned meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

 

Section 8.  Actions of the Board by Written Consent.  Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all the members of the Board of Directors or such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or such committee.  Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

 

Section 9.  Meetings by Means of Conference Telephone.  Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, members of the Board of Directors of the Corporation, or any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or such committee by means of a conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this Section 9 shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

 

 

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Section 10.  Committees.  The Board of Directors, by resolution passed by a majority of the full Board of Directors, may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation.  Each member of a committee must meet the requirements for membership, if any, imposed by applicable law and the rules and regulations of any securities exchange or quotation system on which the securities of the Corporation are listed or quoted for trading.  The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of any such committee.  Subject to the rules and regulations of any securities exchange or quotation system on which the securities of the Corporation are listed or quoted for trading, in the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, and in the absence of a designation by the Board of Directors of an alternate member to replace the absent or disqualified member, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another qualified member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any absent or disqualified member.  Any committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in the resolution establishing such committee, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it.  Each committee shall keep regular minutes and report to the Board of Directors when required.  Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Article III, the resolution of the Board of Directors establishing any committee of the Board of Directors and/or the charter of any such committee may establish requirements or procedures relating to the governance and/or operation of such committee that are different from, or in addition to, those set forth in these By-Laws and, to the extent that there is any inconsistency between these By-Laws and any such resolution or charter, the terms of such resolution or charter shall be controlling.

 

Section 11.  Compensation.  The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary for service as director, payable in cash or securities.  No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.  Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for service as committee members.

 

Section 12.  Interested Directors.  No contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association or other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are directors or officers or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the Board of Directors or committee thereof which authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because any such director's or officer's vote is counted for such purpose if: (i) the material facts as to the director's or officer's relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board of Directors or the committee, and the Board of Directors or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum; or (ii) the material facts as to the director's or officer's relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or (iii) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified by the Board of Directors, a committee thereof or the stockholders.  Common or interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee which authorizes the contract or transaction.

 

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ARTICLE IV

 

 

OFFICERS

 

Section 1.  General.  The officers of the Corporation shall be chosen by the Board of Directors and shall be a President, a Secretary and a Treasurer.  The Board of Directors, in its discretion, also may choose a Chairman of the Board of Directors (who must be a director) and one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant Secretaries, Assistant Treasurers and other officers.  Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless otherwise prohibited by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws.  The officers of the Corporation need not be stockholders of the Corporation nor, except in the case of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, need such officers be directors of the Corporation.

 

Section 2.  Election.  The Board of Directors, at its first meeting held after each Annual Meeting of Stockholders, shall elect the officers of the Corporation who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors; and each officer of the Corporation shall hold office until such officer's successor is elected and qualified, or until such officer's earlier death, resignation or removal.  Any officer elected by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the Board of Directors.  Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors.  The salaries of all officers of the Corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.

 

Section 3.  Voting Securities Owned by the Corporation.  Powers of attorney, proxies, waivers of notice of meeting, consents and other instruments relating to securities owned by the Corporation may be executed in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation by the President or Treasurer or any other officer authorized to do so by the Board of Directors and any such officer may, in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation, take all such action as any such officer may deem advisable to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of security holders of any corporation in which the Corporation may own securities and at any such meeting shall possess and may exercise any and all rights and power incident to the ownership of such securities and which, as the owner thereof, the Corporation might have exercised and possessed if present.  The Board of Directors may, by resolution, from time to time confer like powers upon any other person or persons.

 

Section 4.  Chairman of the Board of Directors.  The Chairman of the Board of Directors, if there be one, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors.  The Board of Directors may designate the Chairman of the Board as the Chief Executive Officer.  If the Board of Directors designates the Chairman of the Board as the Chief Executive Officer, the Chairman of the Board of Directors shall possess the same power as the President to sign all contracts, certificates and other instruments of the Corporation which may be authorized by the Board of Directors, except where by law the signature of the President is required.  During the absence or disability of the President, the Chairman of the Board of Directors shall exercise all the powers and discharge all the duties of the President.  The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as may from time to time be assigned by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors.

 

 

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Section 5.  President.  The President shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision of the business of the Corporation and shall see that all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect.  The President shall execute all bonds, mortgages, contracts and other instruments of the Corporation requiring a seal, under the seal of the Corporation, except where required or permitted by law to be otherwise signed and executed and except that the other officers of the Corporation may sign and execute documents when so authorized by these By-Laws, the Board of Directors or the President.  In the absence or disability of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or if there be none, the President shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, provided the President is also a director, the Board of Directors.  The President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, unless the Board of Directors designates the Chairman of the Board as the Chief Executive Officer.  The President shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as may from time to time be assigned to such officer by these By-Laws or by the Board of Directors.

 

Section 6.  Vice Presidents.  At the request of the President or in the President's absence or in the event of the President's inability or refusal to act (and if there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors), the Vice President, or the Vice Presidents if there are more than one (in the order designated by the Board of Directors), shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President.  Each Vice President shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors from time to time may prescribe.  If there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors and no Vice President, the Board of Directors shall designate the officer of the Corporation who, in the absence of the President or in the event of the inability or refusal of the President to act, shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President.

 

Section 7.  Secretary.  The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings thereat in a book or books to be kept for that purpose; the Secretary shall also perform like duties for committees of the Board of Directors when required.  The Secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the President, under whose supervision the Secretary shall be.  If the Secretary shall be unable or shall refuse to cause to be given notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and if there be no Assistant Secretary, then either the Board of Directors or the President may choose another officer to cause such notice to be given.  The Secretary shall have custody of the seal of the Corporation and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, if there be one, shall have authority to affix the same to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by the signature of the Secretary or by the signature of any such Assistant Secretary.  The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the Corporation and to attest to the affixing by such officer's signature.  The Secretary shall see that all books, reports, statements, certificates and other documents and records required by law to be kept or filed are properly kept or filed, as the case may be.

 

Section 8.  Treasurer.  The Treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors.  The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the President and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation.

 

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Section 9.  Assistant Secretaries.  Assistant Secretaries, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the President, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Secretary, and in the absence of the Secretary or in the event of the Secretary's inability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Secretary, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Secretary.

 

Section 10.  Assistant Treasurers.  Assistant Treasurers, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the President, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Treasurer, and in the absence of the Treasurer or in the event of the Treasurer's inability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Treasurer, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Treasurer.

 

 

ARTICLE V

 

 

STOCK

 

Section 1.  Shares of Stock.  The shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be represented by a certificate, unless and until the Board of Directors of the Corporation adopts a resolution permitting shares to be uncertificated. Notwithstanding the adoption of any such resolution providing for uncertificated shares, every holder of capital stock of the Corporation theretofore represented by certificates and, upon request, every holder of uncertificated shares, shall be entitled to have a certificate for shares of capital stock of the Corporation signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by, (a) the Chairman of the Board, the Vice Chairman of the Board, the President or any Executive Vice President, and (b) the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, certifying the number of shares owned by such stockholder in the Corporation.

 

Section 2.  Signatures.  Any or all of the signatures on a certificate may be a facsimile.  In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

 

Section 3.  Lost Certificates.  The Board of Directors may direct a new certificate or uncertificated shares be issued in place of any certificate theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed.  When authorizing such issuance of a new certificate or uncertificated shares, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner's legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as the Board of Directors shall require and/or to give the Corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

 

 

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Section 4.  Transfers.  Stock of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by applicable law and in these By-Laws.  Transfers of stock shall be made on the books of the Corporation, and in the case of certificated shares of stock, only by the person named in the certificate or by such person's attorney lawfully constituted in writing and upon the surrender of the certificate therefor, properly endorsed for transfer and payment of all necessary transfer taxes; or, in the case of uncertificated shares of stock, upon receipt of proper transfer instructions from the registered holder of the shares or by such person's attorney lawfully constituted in writing, and upon payment of all necessary transfer taxes and compliance with appropriate procedures for transferring shares in uncertificated form; provided, however, that such surrender and endorsement, compliance or payment of taxes shall not be required in any case in which the officers of the Corporation shall determine to waive such requirement.  No transfer of stock shall be valid as against the Corporation for any purpose until it shall have been entered in the stock records of the Corporation by an entry showing from and to whom transferred.

 

Section 5.  Dividend Record Date.  In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty (60) days prior to such action.  If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

 

Section 6.  Record Owners.  The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and to hold liable for calls and assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise required by law.

 

Section 7.  Transfer and Registry Agents.  The Corporation may from time to time maintain one or more transfer offices or agencies and registry offices or agencies at such place or places as may be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors.

 

 

 

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ARTICLE VI

 

 

NOTICES

 

Section 1.  Notices.  Whenever written notice is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any director, member of a committee or stockholder, such notice may be given by mail, addressed to such director, member of a committee or stockholder, at such person's address as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail.  Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission if consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given.  Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation.  Any such consent shall be deemed to be revoked if (i) the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two (2) consecutive notices by the Corporation in accordance with such consent and (ii) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, that the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.  Notice given by electronic transmission, as described above, shall be deemed given: (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (ii) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (iii) if by a posting on an electronic network, together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and (iv) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.  Notice to directors or committee members may be given personally or by telegram, telex, cable or by means of electronic transmission.

 

Section 2.  Waivers of Notice.  Whenever any notice is required by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws, to be given to any director, member of a committee or stockholder, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person or persons entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto.  Attendance of a person at a meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where the person attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.  Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any Annual or Special Meeting of Stockholders or any regular or special meeting of the directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice unless so required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-Laws.

 

 

 

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ARTICLE VII

 

 

GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

Section 1.  Exclusive Forum.  The Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director or officer of the Corporation to the Corporation or to the Corporation's stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or the Corporation's Certificate of Incorporation or By-Laws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation governed by the internal affairs doctrine; provided that the foregoing provision shall not apply in the event that (a) the action could not be brought in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware because of the inability to join an indispensable party, which party could be joined in the action in another form, or (b) a United States federal court has properly assumed exclusive jurisdiction over the action.

 

Section 2.  Fiscal Year.  The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

 

 

ARTICLE VIII

 

 

AMENDMENTS

 

Section 1.  Amendments.  These By-Laws may be altered, amended or repealed, in whole or in part, or new By-Laws may be adopted by the Board of Directors or by the stockholders; provided, however, that notice of such alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new By-Laws be contained in the notice of such meeting of the Board of Directors or stockholders, as the case may be.  The affirmative vote of at least a majority of the entire Board of Directors shall be required to adopt, amend, alter or repeal these By-Laws.  The Corporation’s By-Laws also may be adopted, amended, altered or repealed by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of the shares entitled to vote in connection with the election of directors of the Corporation; provided, however, the alteration, amendment or repeal of (or adoption of any provision inconsistent with) any section of Article III or this Section 1 of Article VIII by the stockholders shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six and two-thirds percent (66 2/3%) of the voting power of the shares entitled to vote in connection with the election of directors of the Corporation, notwithstanding any other provisions of law or the Certificate of Incorporation.

 

Section 2. Entire Board of Directors.  As used in this Article VIII and in these By-Laws generally, the term "entire Board of Directors" means the total number of directors which the Corporation would have if there were no vacancies.

 

 

[As Filed: 10-21-2011]