BY-LAWS

 

OF

 

THE HANOVER INSURANCE GROUP, INC.

 

 

Section 1.

LAW, CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

 

 

AND BY-LAWS

 

1.1. These by-laws are subject to the certificate of incorporation of the corporation. In these by-laws, references to law, the certificate of incorporation and by-laws mean the law, the provisions of the certificate of incorporation and the by-laws as from time to time in effect.

 

 

Section 2. STOCKHOLDERS

 

2.1. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held at 10:00 a.m. on the second Tuesday in May in each year, unless that day be a legal holiday at the place where the meeting is to be held, in which case the meeting shall be held at the same hour on the next succeeding day not a legal holiday, or at such other date and time as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors and stated in the notice of the meeting, at which they shall elect a board of directors and transact such other business as may be required by law or these by-laws or as may properly come before the meeting.

 

2.2. Special Meetings. A special meeting of the stockholders may be called at any time by the chairman of the board, if any, the president or the board of directors. A special meeting of the stockholders shall be called by the secretary, or in the case of the death, absence, incapacity or refusal of the secretary, by an assistant secretary or some other officer, upon application of a majority of the directors or by the holders of shares of capital stock constituting at least 25% of all the shares entitled to vote on matters to be considered at the meeting. Any such application shall state the purpose or purposes of the proposed meeting. Any such call shall state the place, date, hour, and purposes of the meeting.

 

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2.3. Place of Meeting. All meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors or for any other purpose shall be held at such place within or without the State of Delaware as may be determined from time to time by the chairman of the board, if any, the president or the board of directors. Any adjourned session of any meeting of the stockholders shall be held at the place designated in the vote of adjournment.

 

2.4. Notice of Meetings. Except as otherwise provided by law, a written notice of each meeting of stockholders stating the place, day and hour thereof and, in the case of a special meeting, the purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be given not less then ten nor more than sixty days before the meeting, to each stockholder entitled to vote thereat, and to each stockholder who, by law, by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws, is entitled to notice, by leaving such notice with him or at his residence or usual place of business, or by depositing it in the United States mail, postage prepaid, and addressed to such stockholder at his address as it appears in the records of the corporation. Such notice shall be given by the secretary, or by an officer or person designated by the board of directors, or in the case of a special meeting, by the officer calling the meeting. As to any adjourned session of any meeting of stockholders, notice of the adjourned meeting need not be given if the time and place thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment was taken except that if the adjournment is for more than thirty days or, if after the adjournment a new record date is set for the adjourned session, notice of any such adjourned session of the meeting shall be given in the manner heretofore described. No notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjourned session thereof need be given to a stockholder if a written waiver of notice, executed before or after the meeting or such adjourned session by such stockholder, is filed with the records of the meeting or if the stockholder attends such meeting without objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any meeting of the stockholders or any adjourned session thereof need be specified in any written waiver of notice.

 

2.5. Quorum of Stockholders. At any meeting of the stockholders a quorum as to any matter shall consist of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, except where a larger quorum is required by law, by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws. Any meeting may be adjourned from time to time by a majority of the votes properly cast upon the question, whether or not a quorum is present. If a quorum is present at an original meeting, a quorum need not be present at an adjourned session of that meeting. Shares of its own stock belonging to the corporation shall neither be entitled to vote nor be counted for quorum

 

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purposes; provided, however, that the foregoing shall not limit the right of the corporation to vote stock, including but not limited to its own stock, held by it in a fiduciary capacity.

 

2.6. Action by Vote. When a quorum is present at any meeting, a majority of the votes properly cast upon any question shall decide the question, except as otherwise required by law, by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws. No ballot shall be required for any election unless requested by a stockholder present or represented at the meeting and entitled to vote in the election.

 

2.7. Action without Meetings. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken by stockholders for or in connection with any corporate action may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted and shall be delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in Delaware by hand or certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to its principal place of business or to an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Each such written consent shall bear the date of signature of each stockholder who signs the consent. No written consent shall be effective to take the corporate action referred to therein unless written consents signed by a number of stockholders sufficient to take such action are delivered to the corporation in the manner specified in this paragraph within sixty days of the earliest dated consent so delivered.

 

If action is taken by consent of stockholders and in accordance with the foregoing, there shall be filed with the records of the meetings of stockholders the writing or writings comprising such consent.

 

2.8. Proxy Representation. Every stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for him by proxy in all matters in which a stockholder is entitled to participate, whether by waiving notice of any meeting, objecting to or voting or participating at a meeting, or expressing consent or dissent without a meeting. Every proxy must be signed by the stockholder or by his attorney-in-fact. No proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date unless such proxy provides for a longer period. A duly executed proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and, if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an

 

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interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power. A proxy may be made irrevocable regardless of whether the interest with which it is coupled is an interest in the stock itself or an interest in the corporation generally. The authorization of a proxy may but need not be limited to specified action, provided, however, that if a proxy limits its authorization to a meeting or meetings of stockholders, unless otherwise specifically provided, such proxy shall entitle the holder thereof to vote at any adjourned session but shall not be valid after the final adjournment thereof.

 

2.9. Inspectors. The directors or the person presiding at the meeting may, and shall, if otherwise required by law, appoint one or more inspectors of election and any substitute inspectors to act at the meeting or any adjournment thereof. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector at such meeting with strict impartiality and according to the best of his ability. The inspectors, if any, shall determine the number of shares of stock outstanding and the voting power of each, the shares of stock represented at the meeting, the existence of a quorum, the validity and effect of proxies, and shall receive votes, ballots or consents, hear and determine all challenges and questions arising in connection with the right to vote, count and tabulate all votes, ballots or consents, determine the result, and do such acts as are proper to conduct the election or vote with fairness to all stockholders. On request of the person presiding at the meeting, the inspectors shall make a report in writing of any challenge, question or matter determined by them and execute a certificate of any fact found by them.

 

2.10. List of Stockholders. The secretary shall prepare and make, at least ten days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting, arranged in alphabetical order and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in his name. The stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are stockholders entitled to examine such list or to vote in person or by proxy at such meeting.

 

 

Section 3. BOARD OF DIRECTORS

 

3.1. Number. The number of directors which shall constitute the whole board shall not be less than one nor shall be greater than twenty. Within the foregoing limit, the board of directors shall determine the number of directors and the stockholders at the annual meeting shall elect the number of directors as determined. The number of directors may be increased at any time or from time to time by the directors by vote of a majority of the directors then in

 

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office. The number of directors may be decreased to any number permitted by the foregoing at any time either by the stockholders or by the directors by vote of a majority of the directors then in office, but only to eliminate vacancies existing by reason of the death, resignation or removal of one or more directors. Directors need not be stockholders.

 

Except as provided in Section 3.4, each director shall be elected by the vote of the majority of the votes cast with respect to the director at any meeting for the election of directors at which a quorum is present, provided that if the number of nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected, the directors shall be elected by the vote of a plurality of the shares represented in person or by proxy at any such meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. For purposes of this Section, a majority of the votes cast means that the number of shares voted “for” a director must exceed the number of votes cast “against” that director. If a director is not elected, the director shall promptly tender his or her resignation to the Board of Directors. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee will make a recommendation to the Board of Directors on whether to accept or reject the resignation, or whether other action should be taken. In making their determinations, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and the Board of Directors may consider any factors deemed relevant. The Board of Directors will act on the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee’s recommendation and publicly disclose its decision and the rationale behind it within 90 days from the date of the certification of the election results. The director who tenders his or her resignation will not participate in the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee’s recommendation or the Board of Directors’ decision. Directors shall hold office until the next annual meeting and until their successors shall be duly elected and qualified.

 

3.2. Classification, Election and Tenure. The directors, other than those who may be elected by the holders of any class or series of Preferred Stock voting separately by class or series, shall be classified, with respect to the duration of the term for which they severally hold office, into three classes, designated Class I, Class II, and Class III, which shall be as nearly equal in number as possible and as provided by resolution of the Board of Directors in connection with such election.

 

Each initial director in Class I shall hold office for a term expiring at the 1995 annual meeting of stockholders; each initial director of Class II shall hold office for a term expiring at the 1996 annual meeting of stockholders; and each initial director of Class III shall hold office for a term expiring at the 1997 annual meeting of stockholders. Each director shall serve until

 

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his successor is duly elected and qualified or until his earlier death, resignation, removal or disqualification. At each annual meeting of stockholders following the 1995 annual meeting, the stockholders shall elect the successors of the class of directors whose term expires at that meeting to hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of their election and until their successors have been duly elected and qualified or until their earlier death, resignation, removal or disqualification.

 

The Board of Directors shall increase or decrease the number of directors in one or more classes as may be appropriate whenever it increases or decreases the number of directors pursuant to Section 3.1, in order to ensure that the three classes shall be as nearly equal in number as possible.

 

3.3. Notification of Nominations. Subject to the rights of the holders of shares of any class or series of Preferred Stock, nominations for the election of directors may be made by the Board of Directors or by any stockholder entitled to vote for the election of directors. After the registration under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended of the Company's Common Stock with the Securities and Exchange Commission any stockholder entitled to vote for the election of directors at a meeting may nominate persons for election as directors by giving timely notice thereof in proper written form to the clerk accompanied by a petition signed by at least 100 record holders of capital stock of the corporation which shows the class, series (if any) and number of shares held by each person and which holders represent in the aggregate at least 1% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote in the election of directors. To be timely, notice shall be delivered to or mailed and received at the principal executive offices of the corporation not less than 60 days nor more than 90 days prior to the meeting; provided, however, that in the event that less than 70 days' notice or prior public disclosure of the date of the meeting is given or made to the stockholders, to be timely, notice by the stockholder must be received at the principal executive offices not later than the close of business on the tenth day following the day on which such notice of the date of the meeting was mailed or such public disclosure was made. To be in proper written form, a stockholder's notice shall be set forth in writing (i) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or re-election as a director, all information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, including, without limitation, such person's written consent to being named in the applicable proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected and (ii) to the stockholder giving the notice (x) the name and address, as they appear on the corporation's

 

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books, of such stockholder and (y) the class, series (if any) and number of shares of the corporation which are beneficially owned by such stockholder. At the request of the Board of Directors, any person nominated by the Board of Directors for election as a director shall furnish to the clerk the information required to be set forth in a stockholder's notice of nomination which pertains to the nominee. In the event that a stockholder seeks to nominate one or more directors, the clerk shall appoint one or more inspectors to determine whether a stockholder has complied with this Section 3.3. If the inspectors shall determine that a stockholder has not complied with this Section 3.3, the inspectors shall direct the chairman of the meeting to declare to the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the procedures prescribed by these By-laws, and the chairman shall so declare to the meeting and the defective nomination shall be disregarded.

 

3.4 Vacancies. Subject to the rights of the holders of shares of any class or series of Preferred Stock, any vacancies on the Board of Directors resulting from death, resignation or removal shall only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors, or by a sole remaining director, and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors shall be filled by the Board of Directors, or if not so filled, by the stockholders at the next annual meeting thereof or at a special meeting called for that purpose in accordance with these By-laws. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the new directorship was created or the vacancy occurred and until such director's successor shall have been elected and qualified. The directors shall have and may exercise all their powers notwithstanding the existence of one or more vacancies in their number, subject to any requirement of law or of the number of directors as required for a quorum or for any vote or other actions.

 

3.5. Tenure. Except as otherwise provided by law, by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws, each director shall hold office until the next annual meeting and until his successor is elected and qualified, or until he sooner dies, resigns, is removed or becomes disqualified.

 

3.6. Powers. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the board of directors who shall have and may exercise all the powers of the corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by law, the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

 

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3.7. Committees. The board of directors may, by vote of a majority of the whole board, (a) designate, change the membership of or terminate the existence of any committee or committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors; (b) designate one or more directors as alternate members of any such committee who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee; and (c) determine the extent to which each such committee shall have and may exercise the powers of the board of directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, including the power to authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which require it and the power and authority to declare dividends or to authorize the issuance of stock; excepting, however, such powers which by law, by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws they are prohibited from so delegating. In the absence or disqualification of any member of such committee and his alternate, if any, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not constituting a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the board of directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Except as the board of directors may otherwise determine, any committee may make rules for the conduct of its business, but unless otherwise provided by the board or such rules, its business shall be conducted as nearly as may be in the same manner as is provided by these by-laws for the conduct of business by the board of directors. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the board of directors upon request.

 

3.8. Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held without call or notice at such places within or without the State of Delaware and at such times as the board may from time to time determine, provided that notice of the first regular meeting following any such determination shall be given to absent directors. A regular meeting of the directors may be held without call or notice immediately after and at the same place as the annual meeting of stockholders.

 

3.9. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the board of directors may be held at any time and at any place within or without the State of Delaware designated in the notice of the meeting, when called by the chairman of the board, if any, the president, or by one-half of the total number of directors constituting the whole board, reasonable notice thereof being given to each director by the secretary or by the chairman of the board, if any, the president or any one of the directors calling the meeting.

 

 

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3.10. Notice. It shall be reasonable and sufficient notice to a director to send notice by mail at least forty-eight hours or by telegram or telecopier at least twenty-four hours before the meeting addressed to him at his usual or last known business or residence address or to give notice to him in person or by telephone at least twenty-four hours before the meeting. Notice of a meeting need not be given to any director if a written waiver of notice, executed by him before or after the meeting, is filed with the records of the meeting, or to any director who attends the meeting without protesting prior thereto or at its commencement the lack of notice to him. Neither notice of a meeting nor a waiver of a notice need specify the purposes of the meeting.

 

3.11. Quorum. Except as may be otherwise provided by law, by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws, at any meeting of the directors a majority of the directors then in office shall constitute a quorum; a quorum shall not in any case be less than one-third of the total number of directors constituting the whole board. Any meeting may be adjourned from time to time by a majority of the votes cast upon the question, whether or not a quorum is present, and the meeting may be held as adjourned without further notice.

 

3.12. Action by Vote. Except as may be otherwise provided by law, by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws, when a quorum is present at any meeting the vote of a majority of the directors present shall be the act of the board of directors.

 

3.13. Action Without a Meeting. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the board of directors or a committee thereof may be taken without a meeting if all the members of the board or of such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing, and such writing or writings are filed with the records of the meetings of the board or of such committee. Such consent shall be treated for all purposes as the act of the board or of such committee, as the case may be.

 

3.14. Participation in Meetings by Conference Telephone. Members of the board of directors, or any committee designated by such board, may participate in a meeting of such board or committee by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other or by any other means permitted by law. Such participation shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

 

 

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3.15. Compensation. In the discretion of the board of directors, each director may be paid such fees for his services as director and be reimbursed for his reasonable expenses incurred in the performance of his duties as director as the board of directors from time to time may determine. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity and receiving reasonable compensation therefor.

 

 

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Section 4. OFFICERS AND AGENTS

 

4.1. Enumeration; Qualification. The officers of the corporation shall be a president, a treasurer, a secretary and such other officers, if any, as the board of directors from time to time may in its discretion elect or appoint including without limitation a chairman of the board, one or more vice presidents and a controller. The corporation may also have such agents, if any, as the board of directors from time to time may in its discretion choose. Any officer may be but none need be a director or stockholder. Any two or more offices may be held by the same person. Any officer may be required by the board of directors to secure the faithful performance of his duties to the corporation by giving bond in such amount and with sureties or otherwise as the board of directors may determine.

 

4.2. Powers. Subject to law, to the certificate of incorporation and to the other provisions of these by-laws, each officer shall have, in addition to the duties and powers herein set forth, such duties and powers as are commonly incident to his office and such additional duties and powers as the board of directors may from time to time designate.

 

4.3. Election. The officers may be elected by the board of directors at their first meeting following the annual meeting of the stockholders or at any other time. At any time or from time to time the directors may delegate to any officer their power to elect or appoint any other officer or any agents.

 

4.4. Tenure. Each officer shall hold office until the first meeting of the board of directors following the next annual meeting of the stockholders and until his respective successor is chosen and qualified unless a shorter period shall have been specified by the terms of his election or appointment, or in each case until he sooner dies, resigns, is removed or becomes disqualified. Each agent shall retain his authority at the pleasure of the directors, or the officer by whom he was appointed or by the officer who then holds agent appointive power.

 

4.5. Chairman of the Board of Directors, President and Vice President. The chairman of the board, if any, shall have such duties and powers as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors. Unless the board of directors otherwise specifies, the chairman of the board, or if there is none the chief executive officer, shall preside, or designate the person who shall preside, at all meetings of the stockholders and of the board of directors.

 

 

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Unless the board of directors otherwise specifies, the president shall be the chief executive officer and shall have direct charge of all business operations of the corporation and, subject to the control of the directors, shall have general charge and supervision of the business of the corporation.

 

Any vice presidents shall have such duties and powers as shall be set forth in these by-laws or as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors or by the president.

 

4.6. Chief Financial Officer. Unless the board of directors otherwise specifies, the chief financial officer of the corporation shall be in charge of its funds and valuable papers, and shall have such other duties and powers as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors or by the president.

 

Any treasurer or assistant treasurer shall have such duties and powers as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors, the president or the chief financial officer.

 

4.7. Controller and Assistant Controllers. If a controller is elected, he shall, unless the board of directors otherwise specifies, be in charge of its books of account and accounting records, and of its accounting procedures. He shall have such other duties and powers as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors, the president or the treasurer.

 

Any assistant controller shall have such duties and powers as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors, the president, the chief financial officer, the treasurer or the controller.

 

4.8. Secretary and Assistant Secretaries. The secretary shall record all proceedings of the stockholders, of the board of directors and of committees of the board of directors in a book or series of books to be kept therefor and shall file therein all actions by written consent of stockholders or directors. In the absence of the secretary from any meeting, an assistant secretary, or if there be none or he is absent, a temporary secretary chosen at the meeting, shall record the proceedings thereof. Unless a transfer agent has been appointed the secretary shall keep or cause to be kept the stock and transfer records of the corporation, which shall contain the names and record addresses of all stockholders and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. He shall have such other duties and powers as may from time to time be designated by the board of directors or the president.

 

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Any assistant secretaries shall have such duties and powers as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors, the president or the secretary.

 

 

Section 5. RESIGNATIONS AND REMOVALS

 

5.1. Any director or officer may resign at any time by delivering his resignation in writing to the chairman of the board, if any, the president, or the secretary or to a meeting of the board of directors, such resignation to specify whether it will be effective at a particular time, upon receipt by the chairman of the board, president or secretary, or at the pleasure of the board of directors. If no such specification is made, it shall be deemed effective at the pleasure of the board of directors. A director (including persons elected by directors to fill vacancies in the board) may be removed from office only for cause and only by either the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the total number of votes of the then outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors or the affirmative vote of two-thirds of the directors then in office. The board of directors may at any time remove any officer either with or without cause. The board of directors may at any time terminate or modify the authority of any agent. No director or officer resigning and (except where a right to receive compensation shall be expressly provided in a duly authorized written agreement with the corporation) no director or officer removed shall have any right to any compensation as such director or officer for any period following his resignation or removal, or any right to damages on account of such removal, whether his compensation be by the month or by the year or otherwise; unless, in the case of a resignation, the directors, or, in the case of removal, the body acting on the removal, shall in their or its discretion provide for compensation.

 

 

Section 6. VACANCIES

 

6.1. If the office of the president or the treasurer or the secretary becomes vacant, the directors may elect a successor by vote of a majority of the directors then in office. Following a vacancy in the office of the president the directors may, in the interim prior to appointing a successor, establish an Office of the Chairman and designate the members and powers thereof. If the office of any other officer becomes vacant, any person or body empowered to elect or appoint that officer may choose a successor. Each such successor shall hold office for the unexpired term, and in the case of the president, the treasurer and the secretary until his successor is chosen and qualified or in each case until he sooner dies, resigns, is removed or

 

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becomes disqualified. Any vacancy of a directorship shall be filled as specified in Section 3.4 of these by-laws.

 

Section 7. CAPITAL STOCK

 

7.1. Stock Certificates. Each stockholder shall be entitled to a certificate stating the number and the class and the designation of the series, if any, of the shares held by him, in such form as shall, in conformity to law, the certificate of incorporation and the by-laws, be prescribed from time to time by the board of directors. Such certificate shall be signed by the chairman or vice chairman of the board, if any, or the president or a vice president and by the treasurer or an assistant treasurer or by the secretary or an assistant secretary. Any of or all the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case an officer, transfer agent, or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed on such certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent, or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent, or registrar at the time of its issue. Such certificates shall be consecutively numbered and their issuance recorded on the books of the corporation.

 

7.2. Loss of Certificates. In the case of the alleged theft, loss, destruction or mutilation of a certificate of stock, a duplicate certificate may be issued in place thereof, upon such terms, including receipt of a bond sufficient to indemnify the corporation against any claim on account thereof, as the board of directors may prescribe.

 

Section 8. TRANSFER OF SHARES OF STOCK

 

8.1. Transfer on Books. Subject to the restrictions, if any, stated or noted on the stock certificate, shares of stock may be transferred on the books of the corporation by the surrender to the corporation or its transfer agent of the certificate therefor properly endorsed or accompanied by a written assignment and power of attorney properly executed, with necessary transfer stamps affixed, and with such proof of the authenticity of signature as the board of directors or the transfer agent of the corporation may reasonably require. Except as may be otherwise required by law, by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws, the corporation shall be entitled to treat the record holder of stock as shown on its books as the owner of such stock for all purposes, including the payment of dividends and the right to receive notice and to vote or to give any consent with respect thereto and to be held liable for such calls and assessments, if any, as may lawfully be made thereon, regardless of any

 

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transfer, pledge or other disposition of such stock until the shares have been properly transferred on the books of the corporation.

 

It shall be the duty of each stockholder to notify the corporation of his post office address.

 

8.2. Record Date and Closing Transfer Books. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the board of directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty nor less than ten days before the date of such meeting. If no such record date is fixed by the board of directors, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the board of directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

 

In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, the board of directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors, and which date shall not be more than ten days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors. If no such record date has been fixed by the board of directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the board of directors is required by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, shall be the first date on which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in Delaware by hand or certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to its principal place of business or to an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. If no record date has been fixed by the board of directors and prior action by the board of directors is required by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be at the close of

 

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business on the day on which the board of directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.

 

In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the board of directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty days prior to such payment, exercise or other action. If no such record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the board of directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

 

 

Section 9. CORPORATE SEAL

 

9.1. Subject to alteration by the directors, the seal of the corporation shall consist of a flat-faced circular die with the word "Delaware" and the name of the corporation cut or engraved thereon, together with such other words, dates or images as may be approved from time to time by the directors.

 

 

Section 10. EXECUTION OF PAPERS

 

10.1. Except as the board of directors may generally or in particular cases authorize the execution thereof in some other manner, all deeds, leases, transfers, contracts, bonds, notes, checks, drafts or other obligations made, accepted or endorsed by the corporation shall be signed by the chairman of the board, if any, the president, a vice president or the treasurer.

 

 

Section 11. FISCAL YEAR

 

 

11.1. The fiscal year of the corporation shall end on the last day of December.

 

 

Section 12. MISCELLANEOUS

 

12.1. Amendments. In furtherance and not in limitation of the powers conferred upon it by law, the Board of Directors is expressly authorized to adopt, repeal, alter or amend the

 

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By-Laws of the corporation by the vote of a majority of the entire Board of Directors. In addition to any requirements of law and any provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, the stockholders of the corporation may adopt, repeal, alter or amend any provision of the By-Laws upon the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds of the total number of votes then outstanding represented by shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

 

12.2. Time Periods. In applying any provision of these By-Laws which requires that an act be done or not be done a specified number of days prior to an event or that an act be done during a period of a specified number of days prior to an event, calendar days shall be used, the day of the doing of the act shall be excluded and the day of the event shall be included.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Amended on November 16, 2006

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