AMENDED AND RESTATED
BYLAWS
OF
DIRECTED ELECTRONICS INC.

(a Florida corporation)

 

Amended as of September 13, 2007

 

 


 

DIRECTED ELECTRONICS, INC.

BYLAWS

ARTICLE I
OFFICES

     1. Registered Office. The registered office of Directed Electronics, Inc., a Florida corporation (the “Corporation”), shall be located in Miami, Florida, unless otherwise designated by the Board of Directors.

     2. Other Offices. The Corporation may also have offices at such other places, either within or without the State of Florida, as the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board of Directors”) may from time to time determine or as the business of the Corporation may require.

ARTICLE II
MEETINGS OF SHAREHOLDERS

     1. Place. All annual meetings of shareholders shall be held at such place, within or without the State of Florida, as may be designated by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof. Special meetings of shareholders may be held at such place, within or without the State of Florida, and at such time as shall be stated in the notice of the meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof.

     2. Time of Annual Meeting. Annual meetings of shareholders shall be held on such date and at such time fixed, from time to time, by the Board of Directors, provided that there shall be an annual meeting held every year at which the shareholders shall elect members of a Board of Directors and transact such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting.

     3. Notice of Shareholder Business and Nominations.

          (A) Annual Meetings of Shareholders.

               (1) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors of the Corporation and the proposal of business to be considered by the shareholders may be made at an annual meeting of shareholders only (a) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto), (b) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (c) by any shareholder of the Corporation that was a shareholder of record of the Corporation at the time the notice provided for in this Article II, Section 3 is delivered to the secretary of the Corporation, that is entitled to vote at the meeting, and that complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Article II, Section 3.

               (2) For nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a shareholder pursuant to clause (c) of paragraph (A)(1) of this Article II, Section 3, the shareholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the secretary of the Corporation and any such proposed business other than the nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors must constitute a proper matter for shareholder action. To be timely, a shareholder’s notice shall be delivered to the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the ninetieth (90th) day nor earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting (provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than thirty (30) days after such anniversary date, notice by the shareholder must be so delivered not earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made by the

 


 

Corporation). In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a shareholder’s notice as described above. Such shareholder’s notice shall set forth (a) as to each person whom the shareholder proposes to nominate for election as a director (i) all information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors in an election contest, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to and in accordance with Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and (ii) such person’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected; (b) as to any other business that the shareholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the Bylaws of the Corporation, the language of the proposed amendment), the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any material interest in such business of such shareholder and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made; and (c) as to the shareholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made (i) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the Corporation’s books, and of such beneficial owner, (ii) the class and number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation that are owned beneficially and of record by such shareholder and such beneficial owner, (iii) a representation that the shareholder is a holder of record, or evidence that the owner is a beneficial owner, of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such business or nomination, and (iv) a representation whether the shareholder or the beneficial owner, if any, intends or is part of a group that intends (a) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal or elect the nominee and/or (b) otherwise to solicit proxies from shareholders in support of such proposal or nomination. The foregoing notice requirements shall be deemed satisfied by a shareholder if the shareholder has notified the Corporation of the shareholder’s intention to present a proposal at an annual meeting in compliance with Rule 14a-8 (or any successor thereof) promulgated under the Exchange Act and such shareholder’s proposal has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the Corporation to solicit proxies for such annual meeting. The Corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as it may reasonably require to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation.

               (3) Notwithstanding anything in the second sentence of paragraph (A)(2) of this Article II, Section 3 to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors of the Corporation at an annual meeting is increased and there is no public announcement by the Corporation naming the nominees for the additional directorships at least one hundred (100) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a shareholder’s notice required by this Article II, Section 3 shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for the additional directorships, if it shall be delivered to the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Corporation.

          (B) Special Meetings of Shareholders. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of shareholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of shareholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting (1) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (2) provided that the Board of Directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by any shareholder of the Corporation that is a shareholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this Article II, Section 3 is delivered to the secretary of the Corporation, that is entitled to vote at the meeting and upon such election and that complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Article II, Section 3. In the event the Corporation calls a special meeting of shareholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board of Directors, any such shareholder entitled to vote in such election of directors may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be) for election to such position(s) as specified in the Corporation’s notice of meeting, if the shareholder’s notice required by paragraph (A)(2) of this Article II, Section 3 shall be delivered to the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the close

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of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting. In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a shareholder’s notice as described above.

          (C) General.

               (1) Only such persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Article II, Section 3 shall be eligible to be elected at an annual or special meeting of shareholders of the Corporation to serve as directors and only such business shall be conducted at a meeting of shareholders as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Article II, Section 3. Except as otherwise provided by law, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power and duty (a) to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Article II, Section 3 (including whether the shareholder or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such shareholder’s nominee or proposal in compliance with such shareholder’s representation as required by clause (A)(2)(c)(iv) of this Article II, Section 3) and (b) if any proposed nomination or business was not made or proposed in compliance with this Article II, Section 3, to declare that such nomination shall be disregarded or that such proposed business shall not be transacted. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Article II, Section 3, if the shareholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual or special meeting of shareholders of the Corporation to present a nomination or business, such nomination shall be disregarded and such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation.

               (2) For purposes of this Article II, Section 3, “public announcement” shall include disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press, or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

               (3) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Article II, Section 3, a shareholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Article II, Section 3. Nothing in this Article II, Section 3 shall be deemed to affect any rights (a) of shareholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act or (b) of the holders of any series of preferred stock of the Corporation to elect directors pursuant to any applicable provisions of the Articles of Incorporation.

     4. Call of Special Meetings. Special meetings of the shareholders shall be held if called by the Chairman of the Board of Directors or by a majority of the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by the Board of Directors.

     5. Conduct of Meetings. The Chairman of the Board (or in his absence, the President or such other designee of the Chairman of the Board) shall preside at the annual and special meetings of shareholders and shall be given full discretion in establishing the rules and procedures to be followed in conducting the meetings, except as otherwise provided by law or in these Bylaws.

     6. Notice and Waiver of Notice. Except as otherwise provided by law, written or printed notice stating the place, day, and hour of the meeting and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be delivered not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the day of the meeting, either personally or by first-class mail, by or at the direction of

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the President, the Secretary, or the officer or person calling the meeting, to each shareholder of record entitled to vote at such meeting. If the notice is mailed at least thirty (30) days before the date of the meeting, it may be done by a class of United States mail other than first-class. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when deposited in the United States mail addressed to the shareholder at his or her address as it appears on the stock transfer books of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid. If a meeting is adjourned to another time and/or place, and if an announcement of the new time and/or place is made at the meeting before an adjournment is taken, it shall not be necessary to give notice of the adjourned meeting unless the Board of Directors, after adjournment, fixes a new record date for the adjourned meeting. Whenever any notice is required to be given to any shareholder, a waiver thereof in writing signed by the person or persons entitled to such notice, whether signed before, during or after the time of the meeting stated therein, and delivered to the Corporation for inclusion in the minutes or filing with the corporate records, shall be equivalent to the giving of such notice. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the shareholders need be specified in any written waiver of notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of (a) lack of or defective notice of such meeting, unless the person objects at the beginning to the holding of the meeting or the transacting of any business at the meeting, or (b) lack of defective notice of a particular matter at a meeting that is not within the purpose or purposes described in the meeting notice, unless the person objects to considering such matter when it is presented.

     7. Business of Special Meeting. Business transacted at any special meeting shall be confined to the purposes stated in the notice thereof.

     8. Quorum. Shares entitled to vote as a separate voting group may take action on a matter at a meeting only if a quorum of these shares exists with respect to that matter. Except as otherwise provided in the Articles of Incorporation or by law, a majority of the shares entitled to vote on the matter by each voting group, represented in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at any meeting of shareholders, but in no event shall a quorum consist of less than thirty three and one-third percent (33 1/3%) of the shares of each voting group entitled to vote. If less than a majority of outstanding shares entitled to vote are represented at a meeting, a majority of the shares so represented may adjourn the meeting from time to time without further notice. After a quorum has been established at any shareholders’ meeting, the subsequent withdrawal of shareholders, so as to reduce the number of shares entitled to vote at the meeting below the number required for a quorum, shall not affect the validity of any action taken at the meeting or any adjournment thereof. Once a share is represented for any purpose at a meeting, it is deemed present for quorum purposes for the remainder of the meeting and for any adjournment of that meeting unless a new record date is or must be set for that adjourned meeting.

     9. Voting Per Share. Except as otherwise provided in the Articles of Incorporation or by law, each shareholder is entitled to one (1) vote for each outstanding share held by him on each matter voted at a shareholders’ meeting.

     10. Voting of Shares. A shareholder may vote at any meeting of shareholders of the Corporation, either in person or by proxy. Shares standing in the name of another corporation, domestic or foreign, may be voted by the officer, agent, or proxy designated by the bylaws of such corporate shareholder or, in the absence of any applicable bylaw, by such person or persons as the Board of Directors of the corporate shareholder may designate. In the absence of any such designation, or, in case of conflicting designation by the corporate shareholder, the chairman of the board, the president, any vice president, the secretary, and the treasurer of the corporate shareholder, in that order, shall be presumed to be fully authorized to vote such shares. Shares held by an administrator, executor, guardian, personal representative, or conservator may be voted by him or her, either in person or by proxy, without a transfer of such shares into his or her name. Shares standing in the name of a trustee may be voted by him or her, either in person or by proxy, but no trustee shall be entitled to vote shares held by him or her without a transfer of such shares into his or her name or the name of his or her nominee. Shares held by or under the control of a receiver, a trustee in bankruptcy proceedings, or an assignee for the benefit of creditors may be voted by such person without the transfer thereof into his or her name. If shares stand of record in the names of two or more persons, whether fiduciaries, members of a partnership, joint tenants, tenants in common, tenants by the entirety, or otherwise, or if two or more

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persons have the same fiduciary relationship respecting the same shares, unless the Secretary of the Corporation is given notice to the contrary and is furnished with a copy of the instrument or order appointing them or creating the relationship wherein it is so provided, then acts with respect to voting shall have the following effect: (a) if only one votes, in person or by proxy, his or her act binds all; (b) if more than one vote, in person or by proxy, the act of the majority so voting binds all; (c) if more than one vote, in person or by proxy, but the vote is evenly split on any particular matter, each faction is entitled to vote the share or shares in question proportionally; or (d) if the instrument or order so filed shows that any such tenancy is held in unequal interest, a majority or a vote evenly split for purposes hereof shall be a majority or a vote evenly split in interest. The principles of this paragraph shall apply, insofar as possible, to execution of proxies, waivers, consents, or objections and for the purpose of ascertaining the presence of a quorum.

     11. Proxies. Any shareholder of the Corporation, other person entitled to vote on behalf of a shareholder pursuant to law, or attorney-in-fact for such persons may vote the shareholder’s shares in person or by proxy. Any shareholder, other person entitled to vote on behalf of a shareholder, or attorney-in-fact for a shareholder may appoint a proxy to vote or otherwise act for him by signing an appointment form or by electronic transmission. Any type of electronic transaction appearing to have been, or containing or accompanied by such information or obtained under such procedures to reasonably ensure that the electronic transmission was, transmitted by such person, shall be deemed a sufficient appointment subject to verification by the Corporation. Without limiting the manner in which a shareholder, other person entitled to vote on behalf of a shareholder, or attorney-in-fact for a shareholder may appoint a proxy to vote or otherwise act for the shareholder pursuant hereto, a shareholder, other person entitled to vote on behalf of a shareholder, or attorney-in-fact for a shareholder may grant such authority by (a) signing an appointment form, or having such form signed by the shareholder’s authorized officer, director, employee, or agent by any reasonable means including, but not limited to, facsimile or electronic signature, or (b) transmitting or authorizing the transmission of an electronic transmission to the person who will be appointed as the proxy or to a proxy solicitation firm, proxy support service organization, registrar, or agent authorized by the person who will be designated as the proxy to receive such transmission. However, an electronic transmission must set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the electronic transmission was authorized by the shareholder, other person entitled to vote on behalf of a shareholder, or attorney-in-fact for a shareholder. If it is determined that the transmission is valid, the inspectors of election or, if there are no inspectors, such other persons making that determination shall specify the information upon which they relied. An appointment of a proxy is effective when received by the Secretary of the Corporation or such other officer or agent which is authorized to tabulate votes, and shall be valid for up to 11 months, unless a longer period is expressly provided in the appointment form. The death or incapacity of the shareholder appointing a proxy does not affect the right of the Corporation to accept the proxy’s authority unless notice of the death or incapacity is received by the secretary or other officer or agent authorized to tabulate votes before the proxy exercises his authority under the appointment. An appointment of a proxy is revocable by the shareholder unless the appointment form or electronic transmission conspicuously states that it is irrevocable and the appointment is coupled with an interest.

     12. Shareholder List. After fixing a record date for a meeting of shareholders, the Corporation shall prepare an alphabetical list of the names of all its shareholders who are entitled to notice of the meeting, arranged by voting group with the address of, and the number and class and series, if any, of shares held by, each. The shareholders’ list must be available for inspection by any shareholder for a period of ten (10) days prior to the meeting or such shorter time as exists between the record date and the meeting and continuing through the meeting at the Corporation’s principal office, at a place identified in the meeting notice in the city where the meeting will be held, or at the office of the Corporation’s transfer agent or registrar. Any shareholder of the Corporation or the shareholder’s agent or attorney is entitled on written demand to inspect the shareholders’ list (subject to the requirements of law), during regular business hours and at his or her expense, during the period it is available for inspection. The Corporation shall make the shareholders’ list available at the meeting of shareholders, and any shareholder or the shareholder’s agent or attorney is entitled to inspect the list at any time during the meeting or any adjournment.

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     13. Action Without Meeting. Shareholder action may be taken only at an annual or special meeting of shareholders and may not be taken by written consent in lieu of a meeting unless the action to be effected by written consent of shareholders and the taking of such action by such written consent have expressly been approved in advance by the Board of Directors.

     14. Fixing Record Date. For the purpose of determining shareholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of shareholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend, or in order to make a determination of shareholders for any other proper purposes, the Board of Directors may fix in advance a date as the record date for any such determination of shareholders, such date in any case to be not more than seventy (70) days, and, in case of a meeting of shareholders, not less than ten (10) days, prior to the date on which the particular action requiring such determination of shareholders is to be taken. If no record date is fixed for the determination of shareholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of shareholders, or shareholders entitled to receive payment of a dividend, the date on which the notice of the meeting is mailed or the date on which the resolutions of the Board of Directors declaring such dividend is adopted, as the case may be, shall be the record date for such determination of shareholders. When a determination of shareholders entitled to vote at any meeting of shareholders has been made as provided in this Section 12, such determination shall apply to any adjournment thereof, except where the Board of Directors fixes a new record date for the adjourned meeting or as required by law.

     15. Inspectors and Judges. The Board of Directors in advance of any meeting may, but need not, appoint one or more inspectors of election or judges of the vote, as the case may be, to act at the meeting or any adjournment(s) thereof. If any inspector or inspectors, or judge or judges, are not appointed, the person presiding at the meeting may, but need not, appoint one or more inspectors or judges. In case any person who may be appointed as an inspector or judge fails to appear or act, the vacancy may be filled by the Board of Directors in advance of the meeting, or at the meeting by the person presiding thereat. The inspectors or judges, if any, shall determine the number of shares of stock outstanding and the voting power of each, the shares of stock represented at the meeting, the existence of a quorum, the validity and effect of proxies, and shall receive votes, ballots, and consents, hear and determine all challenges and questions arising in connection with the right to vote, count, and tabulate votes, ballots, and consents, determine the result, and do such acts as are proper to conduct the election or vote with fairness to all shareholders. On request of the person presiding at the meeting, the inspector or inspectors or judge or judges, if any, shall make a report in writing of any challenge, question, or matter determined by him or them, and execute a certificate of any fact found by him or them.

     16. Voting for Directors. Unless otherwise provided in the Articles of Incorporation, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast by the shares entitled to vote in the election at a meeting at which a quorum is present.

ARTICLE III
DIRECTORS

     1. Number, Election and Term. The number of directors of the Corporation shall be fixed from time to time, within any limits specified by the Articles of Incorporation, by resolution of the Board of Directors; provided, however, no director’s term shall be shortened by reason of a resolution reducing the number of directors. The directors shall be elected at the annual meeting of the shareholders, except as provided in Section 2 of this Article, and each director elected shall hold office for the term for which he is elected and until his successor is elected and qualified or until his earlier resignation, removal from office or death. Directors must be natural persons who are 18 years of age or older but need not be residents of the State of Florida, shareholders of the Corporation, or citizens of the United States. Any director may be removed at any time, with or without cause, at a special meeting of the shareholders called for that purpose.

     2. Vacancies. A director may resign at any time by delivering written notice to the Corporation, the Board of Directors, or the Chairman of the Board. Such resignation shall take effect when the notice is delivered unless the notice specifies a later effective date, in which event the Board of

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Directors may fill the pending vacancy before the effective date if they provide that the successor does not take office until the effective date. Any vacancy occurring in the Board of Directors and any directorship to be filled by reason of an increase in the size of the Board of Directors shall be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the current directors, though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors, or may be filled by an election at an annual or special meeting of the shareholders called for that purpose, unless otherwise provided by law. A director elected to fill a vacancy shall be elected for the unexpired term of his predecessor in office, or until the next election of one or more directors by shareholders if the vacancy is caused by an increase in the number of directors.

     3. Powers. Except as provided in the Articles of Incorporation and by law, all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the authority of, and the business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed under the direction of, its Board of Directors.

     4. Place of Meetings. Meetings of the Board of Directors, regular or special, may be held either within or without the State of Florida.

     5. Annual Meeting. The first meeting of each newly elected Board of Directors shall be held, without call or notice, immediately following each annual meeting of shareholders.

     6. Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may also be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors.

     7. Special Meetings and Notice. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board or by the President and shall be called by the Secretary on the written request of any two directors. Written notice of special meetings of the Board of Directors shall be given to each director at least forty-eight (48) hours before the meeting. Except as required by law, neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors need be specified in the notice or waiver of notice of such meeting. Notices to directors shall be in writing and delivered personally or mailed to the directors at their addresses appearing on the books of the Corporation. Notice by mail shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be received. Notice to directors may also be given by telegram, teletype, or other form of electronic communication. Notice of a meeting of the Board of Directors need not be given to any director who signs a written waiver of notice before, during or after the meeting. Attendance of a director at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting and a waiver of any and all objections to the place of the meeting, the time of the meeting, and the manner in which it has been called or convened, except when a director states, at the beginning of the meeting or promptly upon arrival at the meeting, any objection to the transaction of business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

     8. Quorum; Required Vote; Presumption of Assent. A majority of the number of directors fixed by, or in the manner provided in, these bylaws shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business; provided, however, that whenever, for any reason, a vacancy occurs in the Board of Directors, a quorum shall consist of a majority of the remaining directors until the vacancy has been filled. The act of a majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present when the vote is taken shall be the act of the Board of Directors. A director of the Corporation who is present at a meeting of the Board of Directors or a committee of the Board of Directors when corporate action is taken shall be presumed to have assented to the action taken, unless the director (a) objects at the beginning of the meeting, or promptly upon his or her arrival, to holding the meeting or transacting specific business at the meeting, or (b) votes against or abstains from the action taken.

     9. Action Without Meeting. Any action required or permitted to be taken at a meeting of the Board of Directors or a committee thereof may be taken without a meeting if a consent in writing, setting forth the action taken, is signed by all of the members of the Board of Directors or the committee, as the case may be, and such consent shall have the same force and effect as a unanimous vote at a meeting. Action taken under this section is effective when the last director signs the consent, unless the consent specifies a different effective date. A consent signed under this Section 9 shall have the effect of a meeting vote and may be described as such in any document.

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     10. Conference Telephone or Similar Communications Equipment Meetings. Members of the Board of Directors may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other at the same time. Participation in such a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting, except where a person participates in the meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business on the ground the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

     11. Committees. The Board of Directors, by resolution adopted by a majority of the full Board of Directors, may designate from among its members an executive committee and one or more other committees, each of which, to the extent provided in such resolution, shall have and may exercise all of the authority of the Board of Directors in the business and affairs of the Corporation except where the action of the full Board of Directors is required by law. Each committee must have two or more members who serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors, by resolution adopted in accordance with this Article, may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may act in the place and stead of any absent member or members at any meeting of such committee. Vacancies in the membership of a committee shall be filled by the Board of Directors at a regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors. The executive committee shall keep regular minutes of its proceedings and report the same to the Board of Directors when required. The designation of any such committee and the delegation thereto of authority shall not operate to relieve the Board of Directors, or any member thereof, of any responsibility imposed upon it or him by law.

     12. Compensation of Directors. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary as director. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings.

     13. Chairman of the Board. The Board of Directors may, in its discretion, choose a Chairman of the Board who shall preside at meetings of the shareholders and of the directors. The Chairman of the Board shall have such other powers and shall perform such other duties as shall be designated by the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board shall serve until his successor is chosen and qualified, but he may be removed as Chairman of the Board at any time by the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE IV
OFFICERS

     1. Positions. The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and one or more Vice Presidents and, if elected by the Board of Directors, a Chairman of the Board. Any two or more offices may be held by the same person.

     2. Election of Specified Officers by Board. The Board of Directors at its first meeting after each annual meeting of shareholders shall elect a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and may elect one or more Vice Presidents.

     3. Election or Appointment of Other Officers. Such other officers and assistant officers and agents as may be deemed necessary may be elected or appointed by the Board of Directors, or, unless otherwise specified herein, appointed by the President of the Corporation. The Board of Directors shall be advised of appointments by the President at or before the next scheduled Board of Directors meeting.

     4. Salaries. The salaries of all officers of the Corporation to be elected by the Board of Directors pursuant to this Article shall be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors or pursuant to its discretion. The salaries of all other elected or appointed officers of the Corporation shall be fixed from time to time by the President of the Corporation or pursuant to his direction.

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     5. Term; Resignation. The officers of the Corporation shall hold office until their successors are chosen and qualified. Any officer or agent elected or appointed by the Board of Directors or the President of the Corporation may be removed, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors. Any officers or agents appointed by the President of the Corporation pursuant to Section 3 of this Article may also be removed from such officer positions by the President, with or without cause. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation by death, resignation, removal, or otherwise shall be filled by the Board of Directors, or, in the case of an officer appointed by the President of the Corporation, by the President or the Board of Directors. Any officer of the Corporation may resign from his respective office or position by delivering notice to the Corporation. Such resignation is effective when delivered unless the notice specifies a later effective date. If a resignation is made effective at a later date and the Corporation accepts the future effective date, the Board of Directors may fill the pending vacancy before the effective date if the Board provides that the successor does not take office until the effective date.

     6. President. The President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, shall have general and active management of the business of the Corporation and shall see that all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect. In the absence of the Chairman of the Board or in the event the Board of Directors shall not have designated a chairman of the board, the President shall preside at meetings of the shareholders and the Board of Directors.

     7. Vice Presidents. The Vice Presidents in the order of their seniority, unless otherwise determined by the Board of Directors, shall, in the absence or disability of the President, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the President. They shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors shall prescribe or as the President may from time to time delegate.

     8. Secretary. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the shareholders and record all the proceedings of the meetings of the shareholders and of the Board of Directors in a book to be kept for that purpose and shall perform like duties for the standing committees when required. He shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the shareholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or President, under whose supervision he shall be. He shall keep in safe custody the seal of the Corporation and, when authorized by the Board of Directors, affix the same to any instrument requiring it.

     9. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have the custody of corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. He shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the President and the Board of Directors at its regular meetings or when the Board of Directors so requires an account of all his transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation. Unless otherwise specified by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall be the Corporation’s Chief Financial Officer.

     10. Other Officers, Employees, and Agents. Each and every other officer, employee, and agent of the Corporation shall possess, and may exercise, such power and authority, and shall perform such duties, as may from time to time be assigned to him by the Board of Directors, the officer so appointing him and such officer or officers who may from time to time be designated by the Board of Directors to exercise such supervisory authority.

ARTICLE V
CERTIFICATES FOR SHARES

     1. Issue of Certificates. The Corporation is authorized to issue shares of common stock of the Corporation in certificated or uncertificated form. The shares of the common stock of the Corporation shall be registered on the books of the Corporation in the order in which they shall be issued. Any certificates for shares of the common stock, and any other shares of capital stock of the Corporation represented by certificates, shall be numbered, shall be signed by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President or a Vice President, and the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer. Any or all of the signatures on a certificate may be a facsimile signature. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if he, she, or it were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue. Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated stock, the Corporation shall send, or cause to be sent, to the record owner thereof a written statement setting forth the name of the Corporation, the name of the shareholder, the number and class of shares, and a summary of the designations, relative rights, preferences, and limitations applicable to such class of shares and the variations in rights, preferences, and limitations determined for each series within a class (and the authority of the Board of Directors to determine variations for future series), and a full statement of any restrictions on the transfer or registration of such shares. Each stock certificate must set forth the same information or, alternatively, may state conspicuously on its front or back that the Corporation will furnish the shareholders a full statement of this information on request and without charge. Every stock certificate representing shares that are restricted as to the sale, disposition, or transfer of such shares shall also indicate that such shares are restricted as to transfer and there shall be set forth or fairly summarized upon the certificate, or the certificate shall indicate that the Corporation will furnish to any shareholders upon request and without charge, a full statement of such restriction. If the Corporation issues any certificated shares that are not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and registered or qualified under the applicable state securities laws, the transfer of any such shares shall be restricted substantially in accordance with the following legend:

“THESE SECURITIES ARE SUBJECT TO RESTRICTIONS ON TRANSFERABILITY AND RESALE AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED OR RESOLD EXCEPT AS PERMITTED UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, AND THE APPLICABLE STATE SECURITIES LAWS, PURSUANT TO REGISTRATION OR EXEMPTION THEREFROM.”

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     2. Lost Certificates. The Board of Directors may require from any person who claims their stock certificate has been lost, stolen, or destroyed an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen, or destroyed. The Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance of either a new stock certificate or uncertificated shares, require the owner of such lost, stolen, or destroyed certificate or certificates, or his legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as it shall require and/or to give the Corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed.

     3. Transfer of Shares. Transfers of shares shall be made upon the books of the Corporation (i) only by the holder of record thereof, or by a duly authorized agent, transferee or legal representative and (ii) in the case of certificated shares, upon the surrender to the Corporation of the certificate or certificates for such shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignment, or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the Corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transaction upon its books.

     4. Registered Shareholders. The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive rights of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by law.

     5. Redemption of Control Shares. As provided by the Florida Business Corporation Act, if a person acquiring control shares of the Corporation does not file an acquiring person statement with the Corporation, the Corporation may redeem the control shares at fair market value at any time during the 60-day period after the last acquisition of such control shares by such acquiring person. If a person acquiring control shares of the Corporation files an acquiring person statement with the Corporation, the control shares may be redeemed by the Corporation only if such shares are not accorded full voting rights by the shareholders as provided by law.

ARTICLE VI

GENERAL PROVISIONS

     1. Dividends. The Board of Directors may from time to time declare, and the Corporation may pay, dividends on its outstanding shares in cash, property, or its own shares pursuant to law and subject to the provisions of the Articles of Incorporation.

     2. Reserves. The Board of Directors may by resolution create a reserve or reserves out of earned surplus for any proper purpose or purposes, and may abolish any such reserve in the same manner.

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     3. Checks. All checks or demands for money and notes of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

     4. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall end on December 31 of each year unless otherwise fixed from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors.

     5. Seal. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name and state of incorporation of the Corporation. The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any other manner reproduced.

     6. Gender. All words used in these Bylaws in the masculine gender shall extend to and shall include the feminine and neuter genders.

ARTICLE VII

AMENDMENTS OF BYLAWS

     Unless otherwise provided by law, these Bylaws may be altered, amended, or repealed or new Bylaws may be adopted by action of the Board of Directors.

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