AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS
MORTAGEIT HOLDINGS, INC.
Section 1. Principal Office.The principal executive office of MortgageIT Holdings, Inc. (hereinafter, the ‘‘Corporation’’) shall be located at 33 Maiden Lane, 6th Floor, New York, New York 10038 or at such other place or places as the Board of Directors may designate.
Section 2. Additional Offices.The Corporation may have additional offices at such places as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or as the business of the Corporation may require.
Section 3. Accounting Year.The Board of Directors shall have the power from time to time to fix the fiscal year of the Corporation by a duly adopted resolution.
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
Section 1. Place.All meetings of stockholders shall be held at
the principal office of the Corporation or at such other place within
Section 2. Annual Meeting.The annual meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation, for the election of members of the Board of Directors and the transaction of such other business that may come properly before the meeting, shall be held at such date and time during the month of June of each calendar year as shall be determined by a majority of the Board of Directors.
To (a) be properly brought before the annual meeting, nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors and any proposal of business to be considered by the stockholders at the annual meeting of the stockholders must be made or brought before the annual meeting either (i) pursuant to the Corporation's notice of meeting, (ii) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (iii) by any stockholder of the Corporation who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of notice provided for in this Section 2(b) and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complied with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 2(b).
For (b) nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of paragraph (a) of this Section 2, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation and such other business must otherwise be a proper matter for action by stockholders. To be timely, a stockholder's notice shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year's annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced by more than thirty (30) days or delayed by more than sixty (60) days from such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made by the Corporation. In no event shall the public announcement of a postponement or adjournment of an annual meeting to a later date or time commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder's notice as described above. Such stockholder's notice shall set forth (i) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director, all information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of
proxies for election of directors in an election contest, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the ‘‘Exchange Act’’) (including such person's written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected); (ii) as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any material interest in such business of such stockholder on whose behalf the proposal is made; and (iii) as to the stockholder giving the notice on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made, (x) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the Corporation's books, and (y) the class and number of shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned beneficially and of record by such stockholder and such beneficial owner.
Notwithstanding (c) anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at the annual meeting except in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Article II, Section 2. The officer of the Corporation presiding at an annual meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that business was not properly brought before the annual meeting in accordance with the provisions of this Article II, Section 2, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare to the annual meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.
Section 3. Special Meetings.
(a)General. The President or the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or a majority of the Board of Directors, or a duly authorized committee thereof, may call a special meeting of the stockholders. Subject to subsection (b) of this Section 3, a special meeting of stockholders shall only be called by the Secretary of the Corporation upon the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting.
(b)Stockholder Requested Special Meetings.
Any (i) stockholder of record seeking to have stockholders request a special meeting shall, by sending written notice to the Secretary (the ‘‘Record Date Request Notice’’) by registered mail, return receipt requested, request the Board of Directors to fix a record date to determine the stockholders entitled to request a special meeting (the ‘‘Request Record Date’’). The Record Date Request Notice shall set forth the purpose of the meeting and the matters proposed to be acted on at it, shall be signed by one or more stockholders of record as of the date of signature, shall bear the date of signature of each such stockholder and shall set forth all information relating to each such stockholder that must be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors in an election contest (even if an election contest is not involved), or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, and Rule 14a-11 thereunder. Upon receiving the Record Date Request Notice, the Board of Directors shall set a record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the special meeting. In accordance with Section 2-502 of the Maryland General Corporation Law, the Board of Directors shall have the sole power and authority to set the record date of a special meeting of stockholders and the date, time and place of any such meeting.
In (ii) order for any stockholder to request a special meeting, one or more written requests for a special meeting signed by stockholders of record as of the Request Record Date entitled to cast not less than a majority (the ‘‘Special Meeting Percentage’’) of all of the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting (the ‘‘Special Meeting Request’’) shall be delivered to the Secretary. In addition, the Special Meeting Request shall set forth the purpose of the meeting and the matters proposed to be acted on at it (which shall be limited to the matters set forth in the Record Date Request Notice received by the Secretary), shall bear the date of signature of each such stockholder signing the Special Meeting Request, shall set forth the name and address, as they appear in the Corporation's books, of each stockholder signing such request and the class and number of shares of stock of the Corporation which are owned of record and beneficially by each such stockholder, shall be sent to the Secretary by registered mail, return receipt requested, and shall be received by the Secretary within 60 days after the Request Record Date. Any requesting
stockholder may revoke his, her or its request for a special meeting at any time by written revocation delivered to the Secretary.
The (iii) Secretary shall inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and mailing the notice of meeting (including the Corporation's proxy materials). The Secretary shall not be required to call a special meeting upon stockholder request and such meeting shall not be held unless, in addition to the documents required by paragraph (ii) of this Section 3(b), the Secretary receives payment of such reasonably estimated cost prior to the mailing of any notice of the meeting.
Except (iv) as provided in the next sentence, any special meeting shall be held at such place, date and time as may be designated in the notice of the meeting. In the case of any special meeting called by the Secretary upon the request of stockholders (a ‘‘Stockholder Requested Meeting’’), such meeting shall be held at such place, date and time as may be designated by the Board of Directors; provided, however, that the date of any Stockholder Requested Meeting shall be not more than 90 days after the record date for such meeting. In fixing a date for any special meeting, the Board of Directors may consider such factors as such person deems relevant within the good faith exercise of business judgment, including, without limitation, the nature of the matters to be considered, the facts and circumstances surrounding any request for meeting and any plan of the Board of Directors to call an annual meeting or a special meeting.
If (v) at any time as a result of written revocations of requests for the special meeting, stockholders of record (or their duly authorized proxies or other agents) as of the Request Record Date entitled to cast less than the Special Meeting Percentage shall have delivered and not revoked requests for a special meeting, the Secretary may refrain from mailing the notice of the meeting or, if the notice of the meeting has been mailed, the Secretary may revoke the notice of the meeting at any time before ten (10) days before the meeting if the Secretary has first sent to all other requesting stockholders written notice of such revocation and of intention to revoke the notice of the meeting. Any request for a special meeting received after a revocation by the Secretary of a notice of a meeting shall be considered a request for a new special meeting.
The (vi) President or the Chairman of the Board of Directors may appoint regionally or nationally recognized independent inspectors of elections to act as the agent of the Corporation for the purpose of promptly performing a ministerial review of the validity of any purported Special Meeting Request received by the Secretary. For the purpose of permitting the inspectors to perform such review, no such purported request shall be deemed to have been delivered to the Secretary until the earlier of (i) five (5) Business Days after receipt by the Secretary of such purported request and (ii) such date as the independent inspectors certify to the Corporation that the valid requests received by the Secretary represent the Special Meeting Percentage of the issued and outstanding shares of stock that would be entitled to vote at such meeting. Nothing contained in this paragraph (vi) shall in any way be construed to suggest or imply that the Corporation or any stockholder shall not be entitled to contest the validity of any request, whether during or after such five (5) Business Day period, or to take any other action (including, without limitation, the commencement, prosecution or defense of any litigation with respect thereto, and the seeking of injunctive relief in such litigation).
Section 4. Notice.Not less than ten (10) or more than ninety (90) days before any meeting of stockholders, the Secretary shall give to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting and to each stockholder not entitled to vote who is entitled to notice of the meeting, written or printed notice stating the time and place of the meeting and, in the case of a special meeting or as otherwise may be required by any statute, the purpose for which the meeting is called, either by mail or by presenting it to such stockholder personally or by leaving it at his residence or usual place of business, or by any other manner authorized by applicable law. If mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail addressed to the stockholder at his post office address as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid.
Section 5. Scope of Notice.Subject to the provisions of Section 2 of Article II of these Bylaws, any business of the Corporation may be transacted at an annual meeting of stockholders without
being specifically designated in the notice, except such business as is required by any statute to be stated in such notice. No business shall be transacted at a special meeting of stockholders except as specifically designated in the notice.
Section 6. Organization.At every meeting of stockholders, the Chairman of the Board, if there be one, shall conduct the meeting or, in the case of vacancy in office or absence of the Chairman of the Board, one of the following officers present shall conduct the meeting in the order stated: the Vice Chairman of the Board, if there be one, the President, the Vice Presidents in their order of rank and seniority, or a Chairman chosen by the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes which all stockholders present in person or by proxy are entitled to cast, and the Secretary, or, in his absence, an Assistant Secretary, or in the absence of both the Secretary and assistant secretaries, a person appointed by the Chairman shall act as Secretary.
Section 7. Quorum.At any meeting of stockholders, the presence in person or by proxy of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at such meeting shall constitute a quorum; but this Section 7 shall not affect any requirement under any statute, the Articles of Incorporation of the Corporation (the ‘‘Articles of Incorporation’’) or these Bylaws for the vote necessary for the adoption of any measure. If, however, such quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the stockholders, the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting, present in person or by proxy, shall have the power to adjourn the meeting from time to time to a date not more than 120 days after the original record date without notice other than announcement at the adjourned meeting until such quorum is present. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally notified.
Section 8. Voting.A plurality of all the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present shall be sufficient to elect a director. Each share may be voted for as many individuals as there are directors to be elected and for whose election the share is entitled to be voted. A majority of the votes cast at a meeting of stockholders duly called and at which a quorum is present shall be sufficient to approve any other matter which may properly come before the meeting, unless more than a majority of the votes cast is required by statute, the Articles of Incorporation of the Corporation or these Bylaws. Unless otherwise provided in the Articles of Incorporation (including any articles supplementary for any series of preferred stock), each outstanding share, regardless of class or series, shall be entitled to one vote on each matter submitted to a vote at a meeting of stockholders.
Section 9. Proxies.A stockholder may cast the votes entitled to be cast by the shares of the stock owned of record by such stockholder either in person or may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy in any manner permitted by applicable law. Such proxy shall be filed with the Secretary of the Corporation before or at the time of the meeting. No proxy shall be valid after eleven (11) months from the date of its execution, unless otherwise provided in the proxy.
Section 10. Voting of Stock by Certain Holders.Stock of the Corporation registered in the name of a partnership, trust, another corporation or other entity, if entitled to be voted, may be voted by the president or a vice president, a general partner or trustee thereof, as the case may be, or a proxy appointed by any of the foregoing individuals, unless some other person who has been appointed to vote such stock pursuant to a bylaw or a resolution of the governing body of such corporation or other entity or agreement of the partners of a partnership presents a certified copy of such bylaw, resolution or agreement, in which case such person may vote such stock. Any director or other fiduciary may vote stock registered in his or her name as such fiduciary, either in person or by proxy.
Shares of stock of the Corporation indirectly owned by the Corporation shall not be voted at any meeting and shall not be counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares entitled to be voted at any given time, unless they are held by it in a fiduciary capacity and are deemed outstanding under applicable law, in which case they may be voted and shall be counted in determining the total number of outstanding shares at any given time.
The Board of Directors may adopt by resolution a procedure by which a stockholder may certify in writing to the Corporation that any shares of stock registered in the name of the stockholder are
held for the account of a specified person other than the stockholder. The resolution shall set forth the class of stockholders who may make the certification, the purpose for which the certification may be made, the form of certification and the information to be contained in it; if the certification is with respect to a record date or closing of the stock transfer books, the time after the record date or closing of the stock transfer books within which the certification must be received by the Corporation; and any other provisions with respect to the procedure which the Board of Directors considers necessary or desirable. On receipt of such certification, the person specified in the certification shall be regarded as, for the purposes set forth in the certification, the stockholder of record of the specified stock in place of the stockholder who makes the certification.
Section 11. Inspectors.At any meeting of stockholders, the Chairman of the meeting may, or upon the request of any stockholder shall, appoint one or more persons as inspectors for such meeting. Such inspectors shall ascertain and report the number of shares represented at the meeting based upon their determination of the validity and effect of proxies, count all votes, report the results and perform such other acts as are proper to conduct the election and voting with impartiality and fairness to all the stockholders.
Each report of an inspector shall be in writing and signed by him or by a majority of them if there is more than one inspector acting at such meeting. If there is more than one inspector, the report of a majority shall be the report of the inspectors. The report of the inspector or inspectors on the number of shares represented at the meeting and the results of the voting shall be prima facie evidence thereof.
Section 12. Voting by Ballot.Voting on any question or in any election may be viva voce unless the presiding officer shall order or any stockholder shall demand that voting be by ballot.
Section 1. General Powers.The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed under the direction of its Board of Directors, except those specifically reserved or granted to the stockholders by statute or by the Articles of Incorporation or these Bylaws, shall be exercised by, or under the authority of, the Board of Directors.
Section 2. Number; Qualifications.
At (a) any regular meeting or at any special meeting called for that purpose, a majority of the entire Board of Directors may establish, increase or decrease the number of directors; provided that the number thereof shall never be less than three (3), or more than twelve (12); and provided, further, that the tenure or office of a director shall not be affected by any decrease in the number of directors.
A (b) majority of the members of the Board of Directors shall be independent (each, an ‘‘Independent Director’’), as determined by the Board of Directors from time to time (such determination to be conclusive) with reference to the listing standards of any national securities exchange or trading market on which the Corporation's Common Stock is traded and with reference to any other laws, rules and regulations applicable to the Corporation; provided, however, that such requirement shall not apply (i) during a period not to exceed sixty (60) days following the death, resignation, incapacity or removal from office of a director prior to the expiration of the director's term of office or (ii) prior to the date and time at which the merger of MIT Acquisition Corp., a New York corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of the Corporation, with and into MortgageIT, Inc., a New York corporation becomes effective pursuant to a Certificate of Merger filed and accepted for record by the Department of State of the State of New York (the ‘‘Merger Effective Date’’). Notwithstanding the foregoing requirement that a majority of the Board of Directors be Independent Directors, no action otherwise validly taken by the Board during a period in which it is permitted in accordance with the preceding sentence that a majority of its members are not Independent Directors shall be invalidated or otherwise affected by such circumstance.
Section 3. Annual and Regular Meetings.An annual meeting of the Board of Directors shall be held immediately after and at the same place as the annual meeting of stockholders, no notice other than this Bylaw being necessary. The Board of Directors may provide, by resolution, the time and place, either within or without the State of Maryland, for the holding of regular meetings of the Board of Directors without other notice than such resolution.
Section 4. Special Meetings.Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by or at the request of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer of the Company or by a majority of directors then in office. The person or persons authorized to call special meetings of the Board of Directors may fix any place, whether within or without the State of Maryland, as the place for holding any special meeting of the Board of Directors called by them.
Section 5. Notice.Notice of any special meeting of the Board of Directors shall be delivered personally or by telephone, facsimile transmission, United States mail or courier to each director at his or her business or residence address. Notice by personal delivery, by telephone or a facsimile transmission shall be given at least two (2) days prior to the meeting. Notice by mail shall be given at least five (5) days prior to the meeting and shall be deemed to be given when deposited in the United States mail properly addressed, with postage thereon prepaid. Telephone notice shall be deemed to be given when the director is personally given such notice in a telephone call to which he or she is a party. Facsimile transmission notice shall be deemed to be given upon completion of the transmission of the message to the number given to the Corporation by the director and receipt of a completed answer-back indicating receipt. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any annual, regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors need be stated in the notice, unless specifically required by statute or these Bylaws.
Section 6. Quorum.The presence of a majority of the total number of directors shall constitute a quorum for transaction of business at any meeting of the Board of Directors; provided that, if less than a majority of such directors are present at said meeting, a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from time to time without further notice; and provided, further, that if, pursuant to the Articles of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the vote of a majority of a particular group of directors is required for action, a quorum must also include a majority of such group.
The directors present at a meeting which has been duly called and convened may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough directors to leave less than a quorum.
Section 7. Voting.The action of the majority of the directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the action of the Board of Directors, unless the concurrence of a greater proportion is required for such action by applicable statute.
Section 8. Telephone Meetings.Directors may participate in a meeting by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment if all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other at the same time. Participation in a meeting by these means shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
Section 9. Action by Directors Without Meeting.Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors may be taken without a meeting, if a consent in writing to such action is signed by each director and such written consent is filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors.
Section 10. Vacancies.Except as may be otherwise provided for or fixed pursuant to the rights of holders of any class or series of preferred stock to elect directors, a vacancy on the Board of Directors that occurs or is created (whether arising through death, retirement, resignation or removal or through an increase in the number of authorized directors), may be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors, even though less than a quorum, or by its sole director. A director so elected to fill a vacancy shall serve until the next annual meeting of stockholders and until such director's successor shall have been duly elected and qualified. A director elected by the stockholders to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the term of the class of the director in
which the vacancy had existed. When a vacancy is created as a result of the resignation of a director from the Board of Directors, which resignation is not effective until a future date, such director shall not have the power to vote to fill such vacancy.
Section 11. Compensation.Directors shall not receive any stated salary for their services as directors but, by resolution of the Board of Directors, may receive compensation from time to time. Directors may be reimbursed for expenses of attendance, if any, at each annual, regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof.
Section 12. Resignations.Any director or member of a committee may resign at any time. Such resignation shall be made in writing and shall take effect at the time specified therein, or if no time be specified, at the time of the receipt by the Chairman of the Board, the President or the Secretary.
Section 13. Removal of Directors.Subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of preferred stock to remove directors elected by such class or series, any director may be removed only for cause and only upon the affirmative vote of the stockholders holding not less than two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast for the election of directors.
Section 14. Policies and Resolutions.The investment policies of the Corporation and the restrictions thereon shall be established from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors shall insure that the investment policies of the Corporation and the limitations thereon or amendment thereof are at all times:
consistent (a) with such policies, limitations and restrictions as are contained in these Bylaws, or in the Corporation's Articles of Incorporation, subject to revision from time to time at the discretion of the Board of Directors without stockholder approval unless otherwise required by law; and
following (b) the Merger Effective Date, in compliance with the restrictions applicable to real estate investment trusts (REITs) pursuant to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, unless and until the Board of Directors determines that it is no longer in the best interests of the Corporation to continue to have the Corporation qualify as a REIT.
Section 15. Loss of Deposits.No director shall be liable for any loss which may occur by reason of the failure of the bank, trust company, savings and loan association, or other institution with whom monies or stock have been deposited.
Section 16. Surety Bonds.Unless required by law, no director shall be obligated to give any bond or surety or other security for the performance of any of his or her duties.
Section 17. Reliance.Each director, officer, employee and agent of the Corporation shall, in the performance of his or her duties with respect to the Corporation, be fully justified and protected with regard to any act or failure to act in reliance in good faith upon the books of account or other records of the Corporation, upon an opinion of counsel or upon reports made to the Corporation by any of its officers or employees or by the advisers, accountants, appraisers or other experts or consultants selected by the Board of Directors or officers of the Corporation, regardless of whether such counsel or expert may also be a director.
Section 1. Number, Tenure and Qualifications.The Board of Directors may appoint from among its members an Executive Committee, an Audit Committee, a Compensation Committee, a Nominating Committee and other committees, composed of one or more directors, to serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors.
Section 2. Powers.
The (a) Board of Directors may delegate to committees appointed under Section 1 of this Article IV any of the powers of the Board of Directors, except as prohibited by law. Any such
committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors, and to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland General Corporation Law, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to amending the Articles of Incorporation, adopting an agreement of merger or consolidation, recommending to the stockholders the sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of the Corporation's property and assets, recommending to the stockholders a dissolution of the Corporation or a revocation of a dissolution or any other matter requiring the approval of the stockholders of the Corporation, or amending the Bylaws of the Corporation; and no such committee shall have the power or authority to authorize or declare a dividend, to authorize the issuance of stock (except that, if the Board of Directors has given general authorization for the issuance of stock providing for or establishing a method or procedure for determining the maximum number of shares to be issued, a committee of the Board of Directors may, in accordance with that general authorization or any stock option or other plan or program adopted by the Board of Directors: authorize or fix the terms of stock subject to classification or reclassification, including the designations and any of the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, or terms or conditions of redemption of such shares; within the limits established by the Board of Directors, fix the number of any such class or series of stock or authorize the increase or decrease in the number of shares of any series or class; and otherwise establish the terms on which any stock may be issued, including the price and consideration for such stock), or to approve any merger or share exchange, regardless of whether the merger or share exchange requires stockholder approval.
In (b) addition to any other committees that may be established from time to time, the Corporation shall, from and after the Merger Effective Time, have the following committees, the specific authority and members of which shall be as designated herein, in such committee's charter or otherwise by resolution of the Board of Directors:
An (i) Audit Committee, which shall consist solely of Independent Directors and which shall, among other things, engage the independent public accountants, review with the independent public accountants the plans and results of the audit engagement, approve professional services provided by the independent public accountants, review the independence of the independent public accountants, consider the range of audit and non-audit fees and review the adequacy of the Corporation's internal accounting controls.
A (ii) Compensation Committee, which shall consist solely of Independent Directors and which shall determine compensation for the Corporation's executive officers, and shall, among other things, review and make recommendations concerning proposals by management with respect to compensation, bonus, employment agreements and other benefits and policies respecting such matters for the executive officers of the Corporation.
A (iii) Nomination and Corporate Governance Committee, which shall consist solely of Independent Directors, and which shall establish standards for service on the Board of Directors; identify individuals qualified to become members of the Board of Directors and recommend director candidates for election or re-election to the Board of Directors; consider and make recommendations to the Board of Directors regarding board size and composition, committee composition and structure and procedures affecting directors; and monitor the Corporation’s corporate governance principles and practices, its human resource practices and its fulfillment of its obligations of fairness in internal and external matters.
Section 3. Meetings.Notice of committee meetings shall be given in the same manner as notice for special meetings of the Board of Directors. A majority of the members of the committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the committee. The act of a majority of the committee members present at a meeting shall be the act of such committee. The Board of Directors may designate a Chairman of any committee, and such Chairman or any two (2) members of any committee (if there are at least two (2) members of the Committee) may fix the time and place of its meeting unless the Board of Directors shall otherwise provide. In the absence of any
member of any such committee, the members thereof present at any meeting, whether or not they constitute a quorum, may appoint another director to act in the place of such absent member. Each committee shall keep minutes of its proceedings and shall report the same to the Board of Directors at the meeting next succeeding.
Section 4. Telephone Meetings.Members of a committee of the Board of Directors may participate in a meeting by means of a conference telephone or similar communications equipment if all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other at the same time. Participation in a meeting by these means shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
Section 5. Action by Committees Without Meeting.Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of a committee of the Board of Directors may be taken without a meeting, if a consent in writing to such action is signed by each member of the committee and such written consent is filed with the minutes of proceedings of such committee.
Section 6. Vacancies.Subject to the provisions hereof, the Board of Directors shall have the power at any time to change the membership of any committee, to fill all vacancies, to designate alternate members to replace any absent or disqualified member or to dissolve any such committee.
Section 1. General Provisions.The officers of the Corporation shall include a Chief Executive Officer, a President, a Secretary and a Treasurer and may include a Chairman of the Board, a Vice Chairman of the Board, one or more Vice Presidents, a Chief Operating Officer, a Chief Financial Officer, one or more Assistant Secretaries and one or more Assistant Treasurers. In addition, the Board of Directors may from time to time appoint such other officers with such powers and duties as they shall deem necessary or desirable. The officers of the Corporation shall be elected annually by the Board of Directors at the first meeting of the Board of Directors held after each annual meeting of stockholders. If the election of officers shall not be held at such meeting, such election shall be held as soon thereafter as may be convenient. Each officer shall hold office until his or her successor is elected and qualifies or until his or her death, resignation or removal in the manner hereinafter provided. Any two or more offices except President and Vice President may be held by the same person. In its discretion, the Board of Directors may leave unfilled any office except that of President, Treasurer and Secretary. Election of an officer or agent shall not of itself create contract rights between the Corporation and such officer or agent. The Board of Directors may delegate to any committee of the Board of Directors the power to elect subordinate officers and may delegate to any officer or committee of the Board of Directors the power to retain or appoint employees or other agents.
Section 2. Removal and Resignation.Any officer or agent of the Corporation may be removed by the Board of Directors if in its judgment the best interests of the Corporation would be served thereby, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person so removed. Any officer of the Corporation may resign at any time by giving written notice of his or her resignation to the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the President or the Secretary. Any resignation shall take effect at any time subsequent to the time specified therein or, if the time when it shall become effective is not specified therein, immediately upon its receipt. The acceptance of a resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective unless otherwise stated, in the resignation. Such resignation shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the Corporation.
Section 3. Vacancies.A vacancy in any office may be filled by the Board of Directors for the balance of the term.
Section 4. General Powers.All officers of the Corporation as between themselves and the Corporation shall, respectively, have such authority and perform such duties in the management of the property and affairs of the Corporation as may be determined by resolution of the Board of Directors, or in the absence of controlling provisions in a resolution of the Board of Directors, as may be provided in these Bylaws.
Section 5. Chief Executive Officer.The Board of Directors may designate a Chief Executive Officer. In the absence of such designation, the Chairman of the Board shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation. The Chief Executive Officer shall have general responsibility for implementation of the policies of the Corporation, as determined and overseen by the Board of Directors, and for the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and shall have all of the powers and authority of management usually vested in the office of chief executive officer of corporations as well as such other duties as may be prescribed from time to time by the Board of Directors.
Section 6. Chief Operating Officer.The Board of Directors may designate a Chief Operating Officer. The Chief Operating Officer shall have the responsibilities and duties as set forth by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer.
Section 7. Chief Financial Officer.The Board of Directors may designate a Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall have the responsibilities and duties as set forth by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer.
Section 8. Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Board.The Chairman of the Board designated by the Board of Directors shall preside over the meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders at which he or she shall be present. In the absence of the Chairman of the Board, the Vice Chairman of the Board, if there be one, shall preside at such meetings at which he or she shall be present. The Chairman of the Board and the Vice Chairman of the Board shall, respectively, perform such other duties as may be assigned to him, her or them by the Board of Directors.
Section 9. President.The President or Chief Executive Officer, as the case may be, shall in general supervise and control all of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the office of president of corporations as well as such other duties as may be prescribed from time to time by the Board of Directors. In the absence of a designation of a Chief Operating Officer by the Board of Directors, the President shall be the Chief Operating Officer. He or she may execute any deed, mortgage, bond, contract or other instrument, except in cases where the execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board of Directors or by these Bylaws to some other officer or agent of the Corporation or shall be required by law to be otherwise executed.
Section 10. Vice Presidents.In the absence of the President or in the event of a vacancy in such office, the Vice President (or in the event there be more than the time of one Vice President, the Vice Presidents in the order designated at their election or, in the absence of any designation, then in the order of their election) shall perform the duties of the President and when so acting shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President; and shall perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him or her by the President or by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may designate one or more Vice Presidents as executive Vice President or as Vice President for particular areas of responsibility.
Section 11. Secretary.The Secretary shall (a) keep the minutes of the proceedings of the stockholders, the Board of Directors and committees of the Board of Directors in one or more books provided for that purpose; (b) see that all notices are duly given in accordance with the provisions of these Bylaws or as required by law; (c) be custodian of the corporate records and of the seal of the Corporation; (d) keep a register of the post office address of each stockholder which shall be furnished to the Secretary by such stockholder; (e) have general charge of the share transfer books of the Corporation; and (f) perform such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him or her by the Chief Executive Officer, the President or the Board of Directors.
Section 12. Treasurer.The Treasurer shall have the custody of the funds and securities of the Corporation and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all monies and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. In the absence of a designation of a Chief Financial Officer by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall be the Chief Financial Officer of the Corporation.
The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the President and Board of Directors, at the regular meetings of the Board of Directors or whenever it may so require, an account of all his or her transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation.
If required by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his or her office and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of his or her death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, monies and other property of whatever kind in his or her possession or under his or her control belonging to the Corporation.
Section 13. Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers.The Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers, in general, shall perform such duties as shall be assigned to them by the Secretary or Treasurer, respectively, or by the President or the Board of Directors. The Assistant Treasurers shall, if required by the Board of Directors, give bonds for the faithful performance of their duties in such sums and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors.
Section 14. Salaries.The salaries and other compensation of the officers shall be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors and no officer shall be prevented from receiving such salary or other compensation by reason of the fact that he or she is also a director.
CONTRACTS, LOANS, CHECKS AND DEPOSITS
Section 1. Contracts.The Board of Directors may authorize any officer or agent to enter into any contract or to execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Any agreement, deed, mortgage, lease or other document executed by one or more of the directors or by an authorized person shall be valid and binding upon the Board of Directors and upon the Corporation when authorized or ratified by action of the Board of Directors.
Section 2. Checks and Drafts.All checks, drafts or other orders for the payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or agent of the Corporation in such manner as shall from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors.
Section 3. Deposits.All funds of the Corporation not otherwise employed shall be deposited from time to time to the credit of the Corporation in such banks, trust companies or other depositories as the Board of Directors may designate.
Section 1. Certificates.Each stockholder shall be entitled to a certificate or certificates which shall represent and certify the number of shares of each class of stock held by him or her in the Corporation. Each certificate shall be signed by the Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the President or a Vice President, and countersigned by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, and may be sealed with the seal, if any, of the Corporation. The signatures may be either manual or facsimile. Certificates shall be consecutively numbered; and if the Corporation shall, from time to time, issue several classes of stock, each class may have its own number series. A certificate is valid and may be issued whether or not an officer who signed it is still an officer when it is issued. Each certificate representing shares which are restricted as to their transferability or voting powers, which are preferred or limited as to
their dividends or as to their allocable portion of the assets upon liquidation or which are redeemable at the option of the Corporation, shall have a statement of such restriction, limitation, preference or redemption provision, or a summary thereof, plainly stated on the certificate. If the Corporation has authority to issue stock of more than one class, the certificate shall contain on the face or back a full statement or summary of the designations and any preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption of each class of stock and, if the Corporation is authorized to issue any preferred or special class in series, the differences in the relative rights and preferences between the shares of each series to the extent they have been set and the authority of the Board of Directors to set the relative rights and preferences of subsequent series. In lieu of such statement or summary, the certificate may state that the Corporation will furnish a full statement of such information to any stockholder upon request and without charge.
Section 2. Transfers.No transfers of shares of the Corporation shall be made if (i) void ab initio pursuant to any provision of the Corporation's Articles of Incorporation or (ii) the Board of Directors, pursuant to any provision of the Corporation's Articles of Incorporation, shall have refused to permit the transfer of such shares. Permitted transfers of shares of the Corporation shall be made on the share records of the Corporation only upon the instruction of the registered holder thereof, or by his or her attorney thereunto authorized by power of attorney duly executed and filed with the Secretary or with a transfer agent or transfer clerk, and upon surrender of the certificate or certificates, if issued, for such shares properly endorsed or accompanied by a duly executed share transfer power and the payment of all taxes thereon. Upon surrender to the Corporation or the transfer agent of the Corporation of a stock certificate duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignment or authority to transfer, the Corporation shall issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transaction upon its books.
The Corporation shall be entitled to treat the holder of record of any share of stock as the holder in fact thereof and, accordingly, shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of the State of Maryland.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, transfers of shares of any class of stock will be subject in all respects to the Articles of Incorporation of the Corporation and all of the terms and conditions contained therein.
Section 3. Replacement Certificate.Any officer designated by the Board of Directors may direct a new certificate to be issued in place of any certificate previously issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing the issuance of a new certificate, an officer designated by the Board of Directors may, in his or her discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or the owner's legal representative to advertise the same in such manner as he or she shall require and/or to give bond, with sufficient surety, to the Corporation to indemnify it against any loss or claim which may arise as a result of the issuance of a new certificate.
Section 4. Closing of Transfer Books or Fixing of Record Date.The Board of Directors may set, in advance, a record date for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or determining stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or the allotment of any other rights, or in order to make a determination of stockholders for any other proper purpose. Such date, in any case, shall not be prior to the close of business on the day the record date is fixed and shall be not more than ninety (90) days and, in the case of a meeting of stockholders, not less than ten (10) days before the date on which the meeting or particular action requiring such determination of stockholders of record is to be held or taken.
In that the stock lieu of fixing a record date, the Board of Directors may provide transfer books shall be closed for a stated period but not longer than twenty (20) days. If the stock transfer books are closed for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders, such books shall be closed for at least ten (10) days before the date of such meeting.
If no record date is fixed and the stock transfer books are not closed for the determination of stockholders, (a) the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day on which the notice of meeting is mailed; and (b) the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to receive payment of a dividend or an allotment of any other rights shall be the close of business on the day on which the resolution of the directors, declaring the dividend or allotment of rights, is adopted.
When a determination of stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders has been made as provided in this section, such determination shall apply to any adjournment thereof, except when (i) the determination has been made through the closing of the transfer books and the stated period of closing has expired or (ii) the meeting is adjourned to a date more than 120 days after the record date fixed for the original meeting, in either of which case a new record date shall be determined as set forth herein.
Section 5. Stock Ledger.The Corporation shall maintain at its principal office or at the office of its counsel, accountants or transfer agent, an original or duplicate share ledger containing the name and address of each stockholder and the number of shares of each class held by such stockholder.
Section 6. Fractional Stock; Issuance of Units.The Board of Directors may issue fractional stock or provide for the issuance of scrip, all on such terms and under such conditions as they may determine. Notwithstanding any other provision of the Articles of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the Board of Directors may issue units consisting of different securities of the Corporation. Any security issued in a unit shall have the same characteristics as any identical securities issued by the Corporation, except that the Board of Directors may provide that for a specified period, securities of the Corporation issued in such unit may be transferred on the books of the Corporation only in such unit.
Section 1. Authorization.Dividends and other distributions upon the stock of the Corporation may be authorized and declared by the Board of Directors, subject to the provisions of law and the Articles of Incorporation. Dividends and other distributions may be paid in cash, property or stock of the Corporation, subject to applicable provisions of law and the Articles of Incorporation.
Section 2. Contingencies.Before payment of any dividends or other distributions, there may be set aside out of any assets of the Corporation available for dividends or other distributions such sum or sums as the Board of Directors may from time to time, in its absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve fund for contingencies, for equalizing dividends or other distributions, for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation or for such other purpose as the Board of Directors shall determine to be in the best interest of the Corporation, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.
The Board of Directors may from time to time adopt, amend, revise or terminate any policy or policies with respect to investments by the Corporation as it shall deem appropriate in its sole discretion.
NON-APPLICABILITY OF THE MARYLAND GENERAL CORPORATION LAW TO CERTAIN CONTROL SHARE ACQUISITIONS
The provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 7 of the Corporations and Associations Article of the Annotated Code of Maryland (or any successor statute) shall not apply to any acquisition by any
person of shares of stock of the Corporation. This Article X may be repealed, in whole or in part, at any time, whether before or after an acquisition of control shares and, upon such repeal, may, to the extent provided by any successor article or bylaw, apply to any prior or subsequent control share acquisition.
Section 1. Seal.The Board of Directors may authorize the adoption of a seal by the Corporation. The seal shall contain the name of the Corporation and the year of its incorporation and the words ‘‘Incorporated in Maryland.’’ The Board of Directors may authorize one or more duplicate seals and provide for the custody thereof.
Section 2. Affixing Seal.Whenever the Corporation is permitted or required to affix its seal to a document, it shall be sufficient to meet the requirements of any law, rule or regulation relating to a seal to place the word ‘‘(SEAL)’’ adjacent to the signature of the person authorized to execute the document on behalf of the Corporation.
INDEMNIFICATION AND ADVANCE OF EXPENSES
Section 1. Indemnification of Agents.To the maximum extent permitted by the laws of the State of Maryland in effect from time to time, the Corporation shall indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, shall pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to (a) any individual who is a present or former director or officer of the Corporation and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his service in that capacity, or (b) any individual who, while a director of the Corporation and at the request of the Corporation, serves or has served another corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise as a director, officer, partner or trustee of such corporation, real estate investment trust, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made a party to the proceeding by reason of his service in that capacity. The Corporation may, with the approval of its Board of Directors, provide such indemnification and advance for expenses to a person who served a predecessor of the Corporation in any of the capacities described in (a) or (b) above and to any employee or agent of the Corporation or a predecessor of the Corporation.
Neither the amendment nor repeal of this Article, nor the adoption or amendment of any other provision of these Bylaws or the Articles of Incorporation inconsistent with this Article, shall apply to or affect in any respect the applicability of the preceding paragraph with respect to any act or failure to act which occurred prior to such amendment, repeal or adoption.
Section 2. Authority to Advance Expenses.Expenses incurred by an officer or director (acting in his or her capacity as such) in defending an action, suit or proceeding shall be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition thereof; provided, however, that such expenses shall be advanced only upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that he or she is not entitled to indemnification by the Corporation as authorized in this Article or otherwise. Expenses incurred by other agents of the Corporation (or by the directors or officers not acting in their capacity as such, including service with respect to employee benefit plans) may be advanced upon such terms and conditions as the Board of Directors deems appropriate. Any obligation to reimburse the Corporation for expense advances shall be unsecured and no interest shall be charged thereon.
Section 3. Right of Claimant to Bring Suit.If a claim under Section 1 or 2 of this Article is not paid in full by the Corporation within ninety (90) days after a written claim has been received by the Corporation, the claimant may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim and, if successful in whole or in part, the claimant shall be entitled to be paid also the expenses (including attorneys' fees) of prosecuting such claims.
Section 4. Insurance.The Corporation may to the fullest extent permitted by law, purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any such person against any liability which may be asserted against such person.
Section 5. Indemnification Non-Exclusive.The indemnification provided herein shall not be deemed to limit the right of the Corporation to indemnify any other person for any such expenses to the fullest extent permitted by law, nor shall it be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which any person seeking indemnification from the Corporation may be entitled under any agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors, or otherwise, both as to action in such person's official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office.
Section 6. Subrogation.In the event of payment under this Article, the Corporation shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the rights of recovery of the indemnified person, who shall execute all papers required and shall do everything that may be necessary to secure such rights, including the execution of such documents necessary to enable the Corporation to effectively bring suit to enforce such rights.
Section 7. No Duplication Of Payments.The Corporation shall not be liable under this Article to make any payment in connection with any claim against the indemnified person to the extent such person has actually received payment (under any insurance policy, agreement, vote or otherwise) of the amounts otherwise indemnifiable hereunder.
WAIVER OF NOTICE
Whenever any notice is required to be given pursuant to the Articles of Incorporation or these Bylaws or pursuant to applicable law, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to such notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to the giving of such notice. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any meeting need be set forth in the waiver of notice, unless specifically required by statute. The attendance of any person at any meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where such person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business on the ground that the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.
AMENDMENT OF BYLAWS
The Board of Directors, by the affirmative vote of at least a majority of the entire Board, shall have the exclusive power to adopt, alter, amend, modify or repeal any provision of these Bylaws and to adopt new Bylaws.