AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS

OF

NEUSTAR, INC.

Last amended June 21, 2012

ARTICLE I

OFFICES

The address of the registered office of NeuStar, Inc. (the “Corporation”) in the State of Delaware is 1209 Orange Street in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle. The name of the Corporation’s registered agent at such address is The Corporation Trust Company. The Corporation may also have such other offices at such other places, within or without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate or the business of the Corporation may require.

ARTICLE II

STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1. Annual Meeting.

(a) An annual meeting of the stockholders, for the election of directors to succeed those whose terms expire and for the transaction of such other business as may properly come before the meeting, shall be held at such place, if any, on such date, and at such time as may be determined by the Board of Directors.

(b) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors and the proposal of business other than nominations to be transacted by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders only (i) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice with respect to such meeting (or any supplement thereto), (ii) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (iii) by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in the following paragraph is delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this section.

(c) For nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of the foregoing paragraph (i) the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation, (ii) such business must be a proper matter for stockholder action under the Delaware General Corporation Law, (iii) in the case of proposed business other than nominations, if the stockholder, or the beneficial owner (within the meaning of Section 13(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) on whose behalf any such business is proposed, has provided the Corporation with a Solicitation Notice, as that term is defined in subclause (D)(v) of this paragraph, such stockholder or beneficial owner must have delivered a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s voting shares required by law to carry any such proposal, and must have included in such proxy materials the Solicitation


Notice, and (iv) if no Solicitation Notice relating thereto has been timely provided pursuant to this section, the stockholder or beneficial owner proposing such business must not have solicited a number of proxies sufficient to have required the delivery of such a Solicitation Notice under this section. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation by the close of business not less than 90 or more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary (the “Anniversary”) of the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that if the date of the annual meeting is advanced more than 30 days prior to or delayed by more than 30 days after the Anniversary, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or the 10th day following the day on which public announcement (as that term is defined in paragraph (g) of this Section 1) of the date of such meeting is first made. In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth (A) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director (i) all information relating to such person as would be required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for the election of such nominees as directors in an election contest, or otherwise would be required, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, and (ii) such person’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as nominee and to serve as a director if elected; (B) as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of such business, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend these Bylaws, the language of the proposed amendment), the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any substantial interest (within the meaning of Item 5 of Schedule 14A under the Exchange Act) in such business of such stockholder and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made; (C) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made or the business is proposed (i) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the Corporation’s books, and of such beneficial owner, (ii) the class and number of shares of the Corporation that are owned of record by such stockholder and such beneficial owner as of the date of the notice, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of the class and number of shares of the Corporation owned of record by the stockholder and such beneficial owner as of the record date for the meeting (except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this Section 1), and (iii) a representation that the stockholder intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such nomination or business; (D) as to the stockholder giving the notice or, if the notice is given on behalf of a beneficial owner on whose behalf the nomination is made or the business is proposed, as to such beneficial owner: (i) the class and number of shares of the Corporation which are beneficially owned (as that term is defined in paragraph (g) of this Section 1) by such stockholder or beneficial owner as of the date of the notice, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of the class and number of shares of the Corporation beneficially owned by such stockholder or beneficial owner

 

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as of the record date for the meeting (except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this Section 1), (ii) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding with respect to the nomination or other business between or among such stockholder or beneficial owner and any other person, including without limitation any agreements that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 5 or Item 6 of Exchange Act Schedule 13D (regardless of whether the requirement to file a Schedule 13D is applicable to the stockholder or beneficial owner) and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of any such agreement, arrangement or understanding in effect as of the record date for the meeting (except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this Section 1), (iii) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any derivative or short positions, profit interests, options, hedging transactions, and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into as of the date of the stockholder’s notice by, or on behalf of, such stockholder or beneficial owner, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss, manage risk or benefit from changes in the share price of any class of shares of the Corporation, or maintain, increase or decrease the voting power of the stockholder or beneficial owner with respect to shares of the Corporation, and a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for such meeting of any such agreement, arrangement or understanding in effect as of the record date for the meeting (except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this Section 1), (iv) a representation whether either such stockholder or beneficial owner intends to engage in a solicitation with respect to the nomination or business and, if so, the name of each participant (as defined in Item 4 of Schedule 14A under the Exchange Act) in such solicitation, and (v) in the case of proposed business other than nominations, a representation whether either such stockholder or beneficial owner intends or is part of a group that intends to deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s voting shares required by law to carry the proposal (an affirmative statement of such intent, a “Solicitation Notice”). The Corporation may require any proposed nominee for director to furnish such other information as the Corporation may reasonably request to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation, including such information as would be necessary for the Corporation to determine whether the proposed nominee can be considered an independent director.

(d) Notwithstanding anything in paragraph (c) of this Section 1 to the contrary, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders is different from the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by paragraph (c) of this Section 1 shall set forth a representation that the stockholder will notify the Corporation in writing within five business days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, or by the opening of business on the date of the meeting (whichever is earlier), of the information required under subclauses (C)(ii) and (D)(i) through (iii) of paragraph (c) of this Section 1 and such information when provided to the Corporation shall be current as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting.

 

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(e) The foregoing notice requirements of this Section 1 shall not apply to a stockholder if the stockholder has notified the Corporation of his or her intention to present a stockholder proposal at a meeting of stockholders only pursuant to and in compliance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act and such proposal has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the Corporation to solicit proxies for such meeting.

(f) Only persons nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1 shall be eligible to be elected at any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to serve as directors and only such business shall be conducted at a meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section. Except as otherwise required by law, the Chairman of the Board shall have the power and the duty to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting has been made in accordance with the procedures set forth in these Bylaws, including whether a stockholder or beneficial owner solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not solicit, as the case may be, proxies in in accordance with any Solicitation Notice delivered pursuant to subclause (D)(v) of paragraph (c) of this Section 1. If any proposed nomination or business was not made or proposed in compliance with these Bylaws, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power and duty to declare that such defectively proposed business or nomination shall not be presented for stockholder action at the meeting and shall be disregarded. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder does not provide the information required under subclauses (C)(ii) and (D)(i) through (iii) of paragraph (c) of this Section 1 to the Corporation within the time frames specified herein or if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the meeting of stockholders to present a nomination or proposed business, such nomination shall be disregarded and such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. For purposes of this Section 1, to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder (or a reliable reproduction or electronic transmission of the writing) delivered to the Corporation prior to the making of such nomination or proposal at such meeting by such stockholder stating that such person is authorized to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders.

(g) For purposes of these Bylaws, “public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or a comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. For purposes of subclause (D)(i) of paragraph (c) of this Section 1, shares shall be treated as “beneficially owned” by a person if the person beneficially owns such shares, directly or indirectly, for purposes of Section 13(d) of the Exchange Act and Regulations 13D and 13G thereunder or has or shares pursuant to any agreement, arrangement or understanding (whether or not in writing) (i) the right to acquire such shares (whether such right is exercisable immediately or only after the passage of time or the fulfillment of a condition or both), (ii) the right to vote such shares, alone or in concert with others and/or (iii) investment power with respect to such shares, including the power to dispose of, or to direct the disposition of, such shares.

 

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Section 2. Special Meetings.

(a) Special meetings of the stockholders, other than those required by law, may be called at any time by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the President or by the Board of Directors acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board. For purposes of these Bylaws, the term “Whole Board” shall mean the total number of authorized directors whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships. The Board of Directors may postpone or reschedule any previously scheduled special meeting.

(b) Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (ii) by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this paragraph is delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and upon such election and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in Section 1 of this Article II. Nominations by stockholders of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at such a special meeting of stockholders if the stockholder’s notice required by paragraph (c) of Section 1 of this Article II shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such special meeting or the 10th day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting. In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

Section 3. Notice of Meetings. Notice of the place, if any, date, and time of all meetings of the stockholders, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting), and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, shall be given, not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date on which the meeting is to be held, to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, except as otherwise provided herein or required by law.

When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken; provided, however, that if the date of any adjourned

 

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meeting is more than 30 days after the date for which the meeting was originally noticed, notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board of Directors shall fix a new record date for notice of such adjourned meeting in accordance with paragraph (a) of Section 3 of Article VI of these Bylaws, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date for notice of such adjourned meeting. At any adjourned meeting, any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the original meeting.

Section 4. Quorum. At any meeting of the stockholders, the holders of a majority of all of the shares of the stock entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for all purposes, unless or except to the extent that the presence of a larger number may be required by law, the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. Where a separate vote by a class or classes or series is required, a majority of the shares of such class or classes or series present in person or represented by proxy shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter.

If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, the chairman of the meeting may adjourn the meeting to another place, if any, date, or time.

Section 5. Organization. Such person as the Board of Directors may have designated or, in the absence of such a person, the Chairman of the Board or, in his or her absence, the Chief Executive Officer or President of the Corporation or, in his or her absence, such person as may be chosen by the holders of a majority of the shares entitled to vote who are present, in person or by proxy, shall call to order any meeting of the stockholders and act as chairman of the meeting. In the absence of the Secretary of the Corporation, the secretary of the meeting shall be such person as the chairman of the meeting appoints.

Section 6. Conduct of Business. The Board of Directors, and the chairman of any meeting of stockholders, each shall have the authority to adopt and enforce such rules or regulations for the conduct of meetings of stockholders and the safety of those in attendance as they shall deem necessary, appropriate or convenient. Subject to such rules and regulations, if any, the chairman of the meeting shall further have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are necessary, appropriate or convenient for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, establishing (i) an agenda or order of business for the meeting, (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present, (iii) limitations on participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies and such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall permit, (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof, (v) limitations on the time allotted for consideration of each agenda item and for questions and comments by participants, (vi) regulation of the manner of voting, including the opening and closing of the polls for balloting and matters which are to be voted on by ballot, and (vii) procedures (if any) requiring attendees to provide the Corporation advance notice of their

 

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intent to attend the meeting. The chairman of the meeting shall have the power, for any reason, from time to time, to adjourn any meeting of stockholders to another place, if any, date and time, or recess any meeting of stockholders, without notice other than announcement at the meeting except as provided in Section 3 of this Article II. The date and time of the opening and closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at the meeting shall be announced at the meeting.

Section 7. Proxies and Voting. At any meeting of the stockholders, every stockholder entitled to vote may vote in person or by proxy authorized by an instrument in writing or by a transmission permitted by law filed in accordance with the procedure established for the meeting. Any copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reliable reproduction of the writing or transmission created pursuant to this paragraph may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing or transmission for any and all purposes for which the original writing or transmission could be used, provided that such copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing or transmission. A proxy shall be deemed signed if the stockholder’s name is placed on the proxy (whether by manual signature, typewriting, telegraphic transmission or otherwise) by the stockholder or the stockholder’s attorney-in-fact. A duly executed proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power. A stockholder may revoke any proxy which is not irrevocable by attending the meeting and voting in person or by filing an instrument in writing revoking the proxy or by filing another duly executed proxy bearing a later date with the Secretary of the Corporation. A proxy is not revoked by the death or incapacity of the maker unless, before the vote is counted, written notice of such death or incapacity is received by the Corporation.

The Corporation may, and to the extent required by law, shall, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the person presiding at the meeting may, and to the extent required by law, shall, appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. Every vote taken by ballots shall be counted by a duly appointed inspector or inspectors.

At all meetings of stockholders for the election of directors at which a quorum is present, each director up for election shall be elected by the vote of a majority of the votes cast; provided, however, that if as of the date that is five business days in advance of the date the Corporation files its definitive proxy statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission (regardless of whether such proxy statement is subsequently revised or supplemented) the number of nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected, the directors (not exceeding the authorized number of directors as fixed by the Board of Directors in accordance with the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation) shall be elected by a plurality of the shares represented in person or by proxy at any such

 

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meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. For purposes of the foregoing sentence, “a majority of the votes cast” means that the number of shares voted “for” a director must exceed the number of shares voted “against” that director. All other matters, unless otherwise required by law, the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, shall be determined by the vote of a majority of the votes cast, meaning that the number of shares voted “for” a matter must exceed the number of shares voted “against” that matter.

Section 8. Stock List. A complete list of stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders, arranged in alphabetical order for each class of stock and showing the address of each such stockholder and the number of shares registered in his or her name, shall be open to the examination of any such stockholder for a period of at least 10 days prior to the meeting in the manner provided by law.

The stock list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting as provided by law. This list shall presumptively determine the identity of the stockholders entitled to examine the list and to vote at the meeting and the number of shares held by each of them.

ARTICLE III

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Section 1. Number of Directors; Qualifications. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock to elect directors under specified circumstances, the number of directors constituting the Whole Board shall be not less than three nor more than fifteen, as fixed from time to time by vote of a majority of the Whole Board; provided, however, that the number of directors shall not be reduced so as to shorten the term of any director at the time in office; provided, further, that the number of directors constituting the Whole Board shall be nine until otherwise fixed by a majority of the Whole Board. In the event that the service by any individual on the Corporation’s Board of Directors would cause the Corporation to violate any of the neutrality requirements to which the Corporation is subject under the applicable laws, regulations, rules and orders of the Federal Communications Commission, such individual shall not qualify to serve as a director of the Corporation and, if applicable, such individual shall cease to be a member of the Board of Directors immediately.

Section 2. Newly Created Directorships and Vacancies. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock then outstanding, any vacancies in the Board of Directors for any reason, and any directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors, may be filled by the Board of Directors, acting by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, and any directors so chosen shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such directors have been chosen and until their successors shall be elected and qualified.

Section 3. Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at such place or places, on such date or dates, and at such time or times as shall have been established by the Board of Directors and publicized among all directors. A notice of each regular meeting shall not be required.

 

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Section 4. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or by a majority of the Whole Board and shall be held at such place, on such date, and at such time as they or he or she shall fix. Notice of the place, date, and time of each such special meeting shall be given to each director by whom it is not waived by mailing written notice not less than five days before the meeting or by telephone or by electronic transmission of the same not less than 24 hours before the meeting. Unless otherwise indicated in the notice thereof, any and all business may be transacted at a special meeting.

Section 5. Quorum. At any meeting of the Board of Directors, a majority of the total number of the Whole Board shall constitute a quorum for all purposes. If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting to another place, date, or time, without further notice or waiver thereof.

Section 6. Participation in Meetings By Conference Telephone. Members of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting of such Board of Directors or committee by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other and such participation shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

Section 7. Conduct of Business. At any meeting of the Board of Directors, business shall be transacted in such order and manner as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine, and all matters shall be determined by the vote of a majority of the directors present, except as otherwise provided herein or required by law, the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. Action may be taken by the Board of Directors without a meeting if all members thereof consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

Section 8. Compensation of Directors. The Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of the directors. The directors may be paid such compensation, if any, for their service on the Board of Directors and its committees, and such reimbursement of expenses, as may be fixed or determined by the Board of Directors from time to time.

Section 9. Powers. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of its Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may exercise all of the powers and duties conferred by law except as provided by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.

 

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Section 10. Chairman of the Board. The Board of Directors may appoint one of its members as Chairman of the Board. The Chairman of the Board shall perform all duties and have all powers which are commonly incident to the position of Chairman or which are delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors. He or she shall have the power to sign all stock certificates, contracts and other instruments of the Corporation which are authorized. The Chairman of the Board shall hold such position until his or her successor is appointed or until his or her earlier resignation or removal. The Chairman of the Board may be removed from such position at any time, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors.

Section 11. Resignations. Any director may resign from the Board of Directors at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission. The resignation shall take effect upon delivery to the Chairman of the Board, Chief Executive Officer, President or Secretary, unless the resignation specifies a later effective date or an effective date determined upon the happening of an event or events. The acceptance of a resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

Section 12. Emergency Bylaws. In the event of any emergency, disaster or catastrophe, as referred to in Section 110 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or other similar emergency condition, as a result of which a quorum of the Board of Directors or a standing committee of the Board of Directors cannot readily be convened for action, then the director or directors in attendance at the meeting shall constitute a quorum. Such director or directors in attendance may further take action to appoint one or more of themselves or other directors to membership on any standing or temporary committees of the Board of Directors as they shall deem necessary and appropriate.

ARTICLE IV

COMMITTEES

Section 1. Committees of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may from time to time designate committees of the Board of Directors, with such lawfully delegable powers and duties as it thereby confers, to serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and shall, for those committees and any others provided for herein, elect a director or directors to serve as the member or members, designating, if it desires, other directors as alternate members who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of any member of any committee and any alternate member in his or her place, the member or members of the committee present at the meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or she or they constitute a quorum, may by unanimous vote appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of the absent or disqualified member.

Section 2. Conduct of Business. Each committee may determine the procedural rules for meeting and conducting its business and shall act in accordance therewith, except as otherwise provided herein or required by law, the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. Adequate provision shall be made for notice to members of all meetings; one-third of the members shall constitute a quorum unless the committee shall consist of one or two members, in which event one member shall constitute a

 

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quorum; and all matters shall be determined by a majority vote of the members present. Action may be taken by any committee without a meeting if all members thereof consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of the proceedings of such committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

ARTICLE V

OFFICERS

Section 1. Generally. The officers of the Corporation may consist of a Chief Executive Officer, a President, a Chief Operating Officer, one or more Vice Presidents, a Chief Financial Officer, a Secretary, one or more Assistant Secretaries, or Treasurer, and such other officers as may from time to time be appointed by the Board of Directors, each to have such authority, functions and duties as set forth in these Bylaws or as determined by the Board of Directors. In the event there are two or more Vice Presidents, then one or more may be designated as Executive Vice President, Senior Vice President, or other similar or dissimilar title. At the time of the election of officers, the directors may by resolution determine the order of their rank. Officers shall be elected by the Board of Directors, which shall consider that subject at its first meeting after every annual meeting of stockholders. Each officer shall hold office until his or her successor is elected and qualified or until his or her earlier resignation or removal. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, and an officer may serve concurrently as a member of the Board of Directors and as Chairman of the Board. The salaries of officers elected by the Board of Directors shall be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors or by such officers as may be designated by resolution of the Board of Directors.

Section 2. Chief Executive Officer. Subject to the provisions of these Bylaws and to the direction of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer shall have the responsibility for the general management and control of the business and affairs of the Corporation and shall perform all duties and have all powers which are commonly incident to the office of chief executive or which are delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors. He or she shall have power to sign all contracts and other instruments of the Corporation which are authorized and shall have general supervision and direction of all of the other officers, employees and agents of the Corporation.

Section 3. President. The President shall perform all duties and have all powers which are commonly incident to the office of president or which are delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors. Subject to the direction of the Board of Directors and the Chief Executive Officer, the President shall have power to sign all stock certificates, contracts and other instruments of the Corporation which are authorized.

Section 4. Chief Operating Officer. The Chief Operating Officer shall have general responsibility for the management and control of the operations of the Corporation and shall perform all duties and have all powers which are commonly incident to the office of chief operating officer or which are delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors. Subject to the direction of the Board of Directors and the Chief Executive Officer, the

 

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Chief Operating Officer shall have power to sign all contracts and other instruments of the Corporation which are authorized and shall have general supervision of all of the other officers (other than the Chief Executive Officer and the President), employees and agents of the Corporation.

Section 5. Vice President. Each Vice President shall have such powers and duties as may be delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors. In the absence or disability of the President, the Vice Presidents in order of their rank as fixed by the Board of Directors, or if not ranked, the Vice President designated by the Board of Directors, shall perform all the duties of the President, and when so acting shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President.

Section 6. Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall have the general care and custody of the funds and securities of the Corporation, and shall deposit all such funds in the name of the Corporation in such banks, trust companies or other depositories as shall be selected by the Board. He or she shall receive, and give receipts for, moneys due and payable to the Corporation from any source whatsoever. He or she shall exercise general supervision over expenditures and disbursements made by officers, agents and employees of the Corporation and the preparation of such records and reports in connection therewith as may be necessary or desirable. He or she shall, in general, perform all other duties incident to the office of Chief Financial Officer and such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to him or her by the Board.

Section 7. Secretary. The Secretary shall attend all sessions of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all votes and the minutes of all proceedings in a book to be kept for that purpose; and shall perform like duties for the standing committees when required by the Board of Directors. He or she shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or these Bylaws. He or she shall keep in safe custody the seal of the Corporation, and when authorized by the Board, affix the same to any instrument requiring it, and when so affixed it shall be attested by his or her signature or by the signature of an Assistant Secretary. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the Corporation and to attest the affixing by his or her signature.

Section 8. Assistant Secretary. The Assistant Secretary, or if there be more than one, the Assistant Secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors, or if there be no such determination, the Assistant Secretary designated by the Board of Directors, shall, in the absence or disability of the Secretary, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

Section 9. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have charge of all funds of the Corporation and exercise such powers and perform such duties as may be incident to the office of a treasurer, including those customarily performed by persons occupying such office. A Treasurer shall, when requested, counsel with and advise the other officers of

 

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the Corporation and shall perform such other duties as may be assigned from time to time by the Board, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or their direct or indirect supervisor.

Section 10. Delegation of Authority. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officers or agents, notwithstanding any provision hereof.

Section 11. Removal. Any officer of the Corporation may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors.

Section 12. Action with Respect to Securities of Other Corporations. Unless otherwise directed by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or any officer of the Corporation authorized by the Chief Executive Officer shall have power to vote and otherwise act on behalf of the Corporation, in person or by proxy, at any meeting of stockholders of or with respect to any action of stockholders of any other Corporation in which this Corporation may hold securities and otherwise to exercise any and all rights and powers which this Corporation may possess by reason of its ownership of securities in such other Corporation.

Section 13. Corporate Funds and Checks. The funds of the Corporation shall be kept in such depositories as shall from time to time be prescribed by the Board of Directors. All checks or other orders for the payment of money shall be signed by the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or such other person or agent as may from time to time be authorized and with such countersignature, if any, as may be required by the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE VI

STOCK

Section 1. Certificates of Stock. Shares of stock of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Each holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by, the Chairman of the Board, President or a Vice President, and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer, representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be by facsimile. The Board of Directors shall have the power to appoint one or more transfer agents and/or registrars for the transfer or registration of certificates of stock or uncertificated shares of any class, and may require stock certificates to be countersigned or registered by one or more of such transfer agents and/or registrars.

Section 2. Transfers of Stock. Transfers of stock shall be made only upon the books of the Corporation or by transfer agents designated to transfer shares of the stock of the Corporation. Except where a certificate is issued in accordance with Section 4 of Article

 

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VI of these Bylaws, an outstanding certificate for the number of shares involved shall be surrendered for cancellation before a new certificate or uncertificated shares are issued therefor. Whenever any transfer of shares shall be made for collateral security, and not absolutely, it shall be so expressed in the entry of the transfer if, when the certificates are presented for transfer or uncertificated shares are requested to be transferred, both the transferor and transferee request the Corporation to do so.

Section 3. Record Date.

(a) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may, except as otherwise required by law, fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date on which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted and which record date shall not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.

(b) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of rights or to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for any other purpose, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not be more than 60 days before such action. If no such record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts a resolution relating thereto.

Section 4. Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates. In the event of the loss, theft or destruction of any certificate of stock, another certificate or uncertificated shares may be issued in its place pursuant to such regulations as the Board of Directors may establish concerning proof of such loss, theft or destruction and concerning the giving of a satisfactory bond or bonds of indemnity.

 

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Section 5. Regulations. The issue, transfer, conversion and registration of shares of stock shall be governed by such regulations as the Board of Directors may establish.

Section 6. List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. The stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the stock ledger, the list required by Section 219 of the Delaware General Corporation Law or the books of the Corporation, or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.

Section 7. Dividends. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors may at any regular or special meetings, declare dividends upon the stock of the Corporation either (a) out of its surplus, as defined in and computed in accordance with Sections 154 and 244 of the Delaware General Corporation Law or (b) in case there shall be no such surplus, out of its net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year. Before the declaration of any dividend, the Board of Directors may set apart, out of any funds of the Corporation available for dividends, such sum or sums as from time to time in their discretion may be deemed proper for working capital or as a reserve fund to meet contingencies or for such other purposes as shall be deemed conducive to the interests of the Corporation.

Section 8. Registered Stockholders. The Corporation may treat the registered owner of shares of stock of the Corporation as the person entitled to receive dividends, to vote, to receive notifications, and otherwise to exercise all the rights and powers of an owner, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claims to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by law.

ARTICLE VII

NOTICES

Section 1. Notices. Notice to stockholders may be given personally, by mail, or by electronic transmission in accordance with Section 232 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. If mailed, notice to stockholders shall be deemed given when deposited in the mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation. Notice shall be deemed to have been given to all stockholders of record who share a post office or street or electronic mail address if notice is given in accordance with the “householding” rules set forth in Rule 14a-3(e) under the Exchange Act and Section 233 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. An affidavit of the Secretary or Assistant Secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein. Notice to the Corporation shall be deemed given when received by the Secretary of the Corporation.

Section 2. Waivers. A written waiver of any notice, signed by a stockholder or director, or waiver by electronic transmission by such person, whether given before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to the notice required to be given to such person. Neither the business nor the purpose of any meeting need be specified in such a waiver. Attendance at any meeting shall constitute waiver of notice except attendance for the sole purpose of objecting to the timeliness of notice.

 

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ARTICLE VIII

MISCELLANEOUS

Section 1. Facsimile Signatures. In addition to the provisions for use of facsimile signatures elsewhere specifically authorized in these Bylaws, facsimile signatures of any officer or officers of the Corporation may be used whenever and as authorized by the Board of Directors or a committee thereof.

Section 2. Corporate Seal. The Board of Directors may provide a suitable seal, containing the name of the Corporation, which seal shall be in the charge of the Secretary. If and when so directed by the Board of Directors or a committee thereof, duplicates of the seal may be kept and used by the Chief Financial Officer or by an Assistant Secretary.

Section 3. Reliance upon Books, Reports and Records. Each director, each member of any committee designated by the Board of Directors, and each officer of the Corporation shall, in the performance of his or her duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books of account or other records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of its officers or employees, or committees of the Board of Directors so designated, or by any other person as to matters which such director or committee member or officer reasonably believes are within such other person’s professional or expert competence and who has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation.

Section 4. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be as fixed by the Board of Directors.

Section 5. Time Periods. In applying any provision of these Bylaws which requires that an act be done or not be done a specified number of days prior to an event or that an act be done during a period of a specified number of days prior to an event, calendar days shall be used (except as otherwise provided in these Bylaws), the day of the doing of the act shall be excluded, and the day of the event shall be included.

Section 6. Electronic Transmission. For purposes of these Bylaws, “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

Section 7. Section Headings. Section headings in these Bylaws are for convenience of reference only and shall not be given any substantive effect in limiting or otherwise construing any provision herein.

Section 8. Inconsistent Provisions; Changes in Delaware Law. If any provision of these Bylaws is or becomes inconsistent with any provision of the Certificate of

 

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Incorporation, the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, the provision of these Bylaws shall not be given any effect to the extent of such inconsistency but shall otherwise be given full force and effect. If any of the provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law referred to above are modified or superseded, the references to those provisions is to be interpreted to refer to the provisions as so modified or superseded.

ARTICLE IX

INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

The Corporation shall be authorized to indemnify and hold harmless each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is otherwise involved in any proceeding, by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, trustee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan, whether the basis of such proceeding is alleged action in an official capacity as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee or in any other capacity while serving as a director, officer, employee, agent or trustee, and the Corporation may indemnify each such person to the fullest extent authorized by the Delaware General Corporation Law against all expense, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes or penalties and amounts paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such person in connection with such proceeding.

ARTICLE X

AMENDMENTS

These Bylaws, or any of them, may be altered, amended or repealed, and new Bylaws may be made, (i) by the Board, by vote of a majority of the number of directors then in office as directors, acting at any meeting of the Board or by written consent, or (ii) by the stockholders, at any annual meeting of stockholders, without previous notice, or at any special meeting of stockholders, provided that notice of such proposed amendment, modification, repeal or adoption is given in the notice of special meeting. Any Bylaws made or altered by the stockholders may be altered or repealed by either the Board or the stockholders.

ARTICLE XI

CONDUCT OF BUSINESS

In the conduct of its business and other corporate matters, the Corporation shall take such actions as are necessary to comply with the neutrality requirements to which the Corporation is subject under the applicable laws, regulations, rules and orders of the Federal Communications Commission. In the case of an ambiguity in the application of any of the provisions of this Article XI, the Board of Directors shall have the power to determine the application of the provisions of this Article XI with respect to any situation based on the facts reasonably believed in good faith by it. In the event Article XI requires

 

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an action by the Board of Directors and the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation and these Bylaws fail to provide specific guidance with respect to such action, the Board of Directors shall have the power to determine the action to be taken.

 

[End]