AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS OF

INTEVAC, INC.

(a Delaware corporation)

March 9, 2012

ARTICLE I - CORPORATE OFFICES

1.1 REGISTERED OFFICE

The registered office of Intevac, Inc. shall be fixed in the corporation’s certificate of incorporation, as the same may be amended from time to time.

1.2 OTHER OFFICES

The corporation’s board of directors (the “Board”) may at any time establish other offices at any place or places where the corporation is qualified to do business.

ARTICLE II - MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

2.1 PLACE OF MEETINGS

Meetings of stockholders shall be held at any place, within or outside the State of Delaware, designated by the Board. The Board may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by Section 211(a)(2) of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”). In the absence of any such designation or determination, stockholders’ meetings shall be held at the corporation’s principal executive office.

2.2 ANNUAL MEETING

The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held each year on such date and at a time designated by the Board. At the annual meeting, directors shall be elected and any other proper business may be transacted.

2.3 SPECIAL MEETING

A special meeting of the stockholders may be called as set forth in this corporation’s certificate of incorporation.

No business may be transacted at such special meeting other than the business specified in such notice to stockholders. Nothing contained in this paragraph of this Section 2.3 shall be construed as limiting, fixing, or affecting the time when a meeting of stockholders called by action of the Board may be held.


2.4 ADVANCE NOTICE PROCEDURES; NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS

(i) At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be: (A) specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board, (B) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board, or (C) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder. For business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in proper written form to the Secretary of the corporation. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not less than one hundred twenty (120) calendar days before the one year anniversary of the date on which the corporation first mailed its proxy statement to stockholders in connection with the previous year’s annual meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that in the event that no annual meeting was held in the previous year or the date of the annual meeting has been changed by more than thirty (30) days from the date of the prior year’s meeting, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the later of one hundred twenty (120) calendar days in advance of such annual meeting and ten (10) calendar days following the date on which Public Announcement (as defined below) of the date of the meeting is first made. In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of a shareholder’s notice as described in this Section 2.4. “Public Announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or a comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or any successor thereto (the “1934 Act”). To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the secretary shall set forth as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting: (a) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting and the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting, (b) the name and address, as they appear on the corporation’s books, of the stockholder proposing such business and any Stockholder Associated Person (as defined below), (c) the class and number of shares of the corporation that are held of record or are beneficially owned by the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person and any derivative positions held or beneficially held by the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person, (d) whether and the extent to which any hedging or other transaction or series of transactions has been entered into by or on behalf of such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person with respect to any securities of the corporation, and a description of any other agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares), the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, or manage the risk or benefit from share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person with respect to any securities of the corporation (e) any material interest of the stockholder or a Stockholder Associated Person in such business and (f) a statement whether either such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person will deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the corporation’s voting shares required under applicable law to carry the proposal (such information provided and statements made as required by

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clauses (a) through (f) constitute a “Business Solicitation Statement”). In addition, to be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must be supplemented not later than ten (10) calendar days following the record date to disclose the information contained in clauses (c) and (d) above as of the record date (the “Supplement”). For purposes of this Section 2.4, a “Stockholder Associated Person” of any stockholder shall mean (x) any person controlling, directly or indirectly, or acting in concert with, such stockholder, (y) any beneficial owner of shares of stock of the corporation owned of record or beneficially by such stockholder and on whose behalf the proposal or nomination, as the case may be, is being made, or (z) any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with such person referred to in the preceding clauses (x) and (y). Without exception, no business shall be conducted at any annual meeting except in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.4 (i). In addition, business proposed to be brought by a stockholder may not be brought before the annual meeting if such stockholder or a Stockholder Associated Person, as applicable, takes action contrary to the representations made in the Business Solicitation Statement or Supplement or if the Business Solicitation Statement or Supplement contains an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The chairperson of the annual meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare at the meeting that business was not properly brought before the meeting and in accordance with the provisions of this Section 2.4 (i), and, if the chairperson should so determine, he or she shall so declare at the meeting that any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.

(ii) Notwithstanding anything in these bylaws to the contrary, only persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.4 (ii) shall be eligible for election as directors. Nominations of persons for election to the Board may be made at a meeting of stockholders by or at the direction of the Board or by any stockholder of the corporation entitled to vote in the election of directors at the meeting who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 2.4(ii). Such nominations, other than those made by or at the direction of the Board, shall be made pursuant to timely notice in proper written form to the Secretary of the corporation in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.4(i). To be in proper written form, a stockholder’s notice delivered pursuant to this Section 2.4(ii) shall set forth (a) as to each person (a “nominee”) whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director: (A) the name, age, business address and residence address of the nominee, (B) the principal occupation or employment of the nominee, (C) the class and number of shares of the corporation that are held of record or are beneficially owned by the nominee and any derivative positions held or beneficially held by the nominee, (D) whether and the extent to which any hedging or other transaction or series of transactions has been entered into by or on behalf of the nominee with respect to any securities of the corporation, and a description of any other agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares), the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, or manage the risk or benefit from share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, the nominee with respect to any securities of the corporation, (E) a description of all arrangements or understandings between the stockholder and each nominee and any other person or persons (naming such person or persons) pursuant to which the nominations are to be made by the stockholder, (F) a written statement executed by the nominee acknowledging that as a director of the corporation, the nominee will owe fiduciary duties under Delaware law with respect to the

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corporation and its stockholders, (G) a written agreement by the nominee that such nominee, if elected, will tender, promptly following each of such nominee’s elections or reelections, an irrevocable resignation effective upon (i) such nominee’s failure to receive a majority of the votes cast with respect to his or her reelection at any future meeting at which such nominee would face reelection in an uncontested election and (ii) acceptance of such resignation by the Board, in accordance with the corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines, and (H) any other information relating to the nominee that would be required to be disclosed about such nominee if proxies were being solicited for the elections of the nominee as a director, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to Regulation 14A under the 1934 Act (including without limitation the nominee’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement, if any, as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected); and (b) as to such stockholder giving notice, (x) the information required to be provided pursuant in a stockholder’s notice pursuant to clauses (b) through (f) of Section 2.4(i) and the Supplement referenced in Section 2.4(i) (except that references to “business” in such Section 2.4(i) shall instead refer to nominations of directors for purposes of this paragraph) and (y) a statement whether either such stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person will deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of a number of the corporation’s voting shares reasonably believed by such stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person to be necessary to elect such nominee(s) (such information provided and statements made as required by preceding clauses (a) and (b) above constitute a “Nominee Solicitation Statement”). At the request of the Board, any person nominated by a stockholder for election as a director shall furnish to the Secretary of the corporation (1) that information required to be set forth in the stockholder’s Nominee Solicitation Statement as of a date subsequent to the date on which the notice of such person’s nomination was given and (2) such other information as may reasonably be required by the corporation to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the corporation or that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such nominee; in the absence of the furnishing of such information if requested, such stockholder’s nomination shall not be considered in proper form pursuant to this Section 2.4(ii). Without exception, no person nominated by a stockholder shall be eligible for election or reelection as a director of the corporation unless nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.4(ii). In addition, a nominee shall not be eligible for election or reelection if a stockholder or Stockholder Associated Person, as applicable, takes action contrary to the representations made in the Nominee Solicitation Statement or if the Nominee Solicitation Statement contains an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The chairperson of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare at the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the procedures prescribed by these bylaws, and if the chairperson should so determine, he or she shall so declare at the meeting, and the defective nomination shall be disregarded.

(iii) In addition to the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.4, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of state law and of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 2.4, including with respect to business such stockholder intends to bring before the annual meeting that involves a proposal or nomination that such stockholder requests to be included in the corporation’s proxy statement, the requirements of Rule 14a-8 (or any successor provision) under the 1934 Act. Nothing in this Section 2.4 shall be deemed to affect any right of the corporation to omit a proposal from the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 (or any successor provision) under the 1934 Act.

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(iv) These provisions shall not prevent the consideration and approval or disapproval at an annual meeting of reports of officers, directors and committees of the Board, but in connection therewith no new business shall be acted upon at any such meeting unless stated, filed and received as herein provided. Notwithstanding anything in these bylaws to the contrary, no business brought before a meeting by a stockholder shall be conducted at an annual meeting except in accordance with procedures set forth in this Section 2.4.

(v) Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given which shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Except as otherwise provided in the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the written notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting.

2.5 MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE; AFFIDAVIT OF NOTICE

Notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given:

(i) if mailed, when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at his or her address as it appears on the corporation’s records; or

(ii) if electronically transmitted as provided in Section 8.1 of these bylaws.

An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation or of the transfer agent or any other agent of the corporation that the notice has been given by mail or by a form of electronic transmission, as applicable, shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

2.6 QUORUM

The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at all meetings of the stockholders. If, however, such quorum is not present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, then either (i) the chairperson of the meeting, or (ii) the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present or represented, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed.

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2.7 ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE

When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless these bylaws otherwise require, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time, place if any thereof, and the means of remote communications if any by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

2.8 CONDUCT OF BUSINESS

The chairperson of any meeting of stockholders shall determine the order of business and the procedure at the meeting, including such regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of business.

2.9 VOTING

The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.11 of these bylaws, subject to Section 217 (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors and joint owners of stock) and Section 218 (relating to voting trusts and other voting agreements) of the DGCL.

Except as may be otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder.

2.10 STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING

Any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the corporation must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders of the corporation and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such stockholders.

2.11 RECORD DATE FOR STOCKHOLDER NOTICE; VOTING; GIVING CONSENTS

In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board may fix, in advance, a record date, which record date shall not precede the date on which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted and which shall not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting, nor more than 60 days prior to any other such action.

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If the Board does not so fix a record date:

(i) The record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.

(ii) The record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board adopts the resolution relating thereto.

A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

2.12 PROXIES

Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy authorized by an instrument in writing or by a transmission permitted by law filed in accordance with the procedure established for the meeting, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212 of the DGCL.

2.13 LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS ENTITLED TO VOTE

The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the corporation shall prepare and make, at least 10 days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least 10 days prior to the meeting: (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the corporation’s principal executive office. In the event that the corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. Such list shall presumptively determine the identity of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and the number of shares held by each of them.

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2.14 INSPECTORS OF ELECTION

A written proxy may be in the form of a telegram, cablegram, or other means of electronic transmission which sets forth or is submitted with information from which it can be determined that the telegram, cablegram, or other means of electronic transmission was authorized by the person.

Before any meeting of stockholders, the Board shall appoint an inspector or inspectors of election to act at the meeting or its adjournment. The number of inspectors shall be either one (1) or three (3). If any person appointed as inspector fails to appear or fails or refuses to act, then the chairperson of the meeting may, and upon the request of any stockholder or a stockholder’s proxy shall, appoint a person to fill that vacancy.

Such inspectors shall:

(i) determine the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each, the number of shares represented at the meeting, the existence of a quorum, and the authenticity, validity, and effect of proxies;

(ii) receive votes, ballots or consents;

(iii) hear and determine all challenges and questions in any way arising in connection with the right to vote;

(iv) count and tabulate all votes or consents;

(v) determine when the polls shall close;

(vi) determine the result; and

(vii) do any other acts that may be proper to conduct the election or vote with fairness to all stockholders.

The inspectors of election shall perform their duties impartially, in good faith, to the best of their ability and as expeditiously as is practical. If there are three (3) inspectors of election, the decision, act or certificate of a majority is effective in all respects as the decision, act or certificate of all. Any report or certificate made by the inspectors of election is prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

ARTICLE III - DIRECTORS

3.1 POWERS

Subject to the provisions of the DGCL and any limitation in the certificate of incorporation and these bylaws relating to action required to be approved by the stockholders or by the outstanding shares, the business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed and all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction of the Board.

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Without prejudice to these general powers, and subject to the same limitations, the Board shall have the power to:

(i) Select and remove all officers, agents, and employees of the corporation; prescribe any powers and duties for them that are consistent with law, with the certificate of incorporation, and with these bylaws; fix their compensation; and require from them security for faithful service.

(ii) Change the principal executive office or the principal business office of the corporation from one location to another; cause the corporation to be qualified to do business in any state, territory, dependency, or country and conduct business within any such state, territory, dependency, or country; and designate any place within or outside the State of Delaware for the holding of any stockholders’ meeting, or meetings, including annual meetings.

(iii) Adopt, make, and use a corporate seal; prescribe the forms of certificates of stock; and alter the form of the seal and certificates.

(iv) Authorize the issuance of shares of stock of the corporation on any lawful terms, in consideration of money paid, labor done, services actually rendered, debts or securities cancelled, or tangible or intangible property actually received.

(v) Borrow money and incur indebtedness on behalf of the corporation, and cause to be executed and delivered for the corporation’s purposes, in the corporate name, promissory notes, bonds, debentures, deeds of trust, mortgages, pledges, hypothecations, and other evidences of debt and securities.

3.2 NUMBER OF DIRECTORS

The Board shall consist of one or more members, each of whom shall be a natural person. The number of directors shall be determined from time to time by resolution of the Board, within the range set forth in the certificate of incorporation. No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director before that director’s term of office expires.

3.3 ELECTION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF DIRECTORS

Except as provided in Section 3.4 (resignation and vacancies) of these bylaws, directors shall be elected at each annual meeting of the stockholders to hold office until the next annual meeting. Each director, including a director elected to fill a vacancy, shall hold office until the expiration of the term for which elected and until a successor has been qualified and elected or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal.

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A nominee for director shall be elected to the Board if the votes cast for such nominee’s election by the holders of the shares present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote on the election of directors exceed the votes cast against such nominee’s election by such holders; provided, however, that directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast by the holders of the shares present in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote on the election of directors at any meeting of stockholders for which, as of the date that is ten (10) calendar days prior to the date the corporation files its definitive proxy statement (regardless of whether thereafter revised or supplemented) for such meeting with the Securities and Exchange Commission, the number of nominees exceeds the number of directors to be elected at the meeting.

If a nominee for director fails to receive the required majority vote for reelection in an uncontested election, the corporation’s Nominating and Governance Committee shall then make a recommendation to the Board as to whether to accept or reject such director’s resignation as previously tendered pursuant to the corporation’s Corporate Governance Guidelines or whether other action should be taken. Thereafter, the Board will act on the corporation’s Nominating and Governance Committee recommendation to accept or reject such resignation or take other action. Within 90 days from the date the election results are certified, the corporation will publicly disclose the Board’s decision and the rationale behind such decision.

3.4 RESIGNATION AND VACANCIES

Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the corporation. A resignation is effective when the resignation is delivered, unless the resignation specifies a later effective date or an effective date determined upon the happening of an event or events. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, when one or more directors resign from the Board effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who are resigning, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective.

Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors elected by all of the stockholders having the right to vote as a single class may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director, except that a vacancy created by the removal of a director by the vote of the stockholders or by court order may be filled only by the vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote represented at a duly held meeting at which a quorum is present.

If at any time, by reason of death or resignation or other cause, the corporation should have no directors in office, then any officer or any stockholder or an executor, administrator, trustee or guardian of a stockholder, or other fiduciary entrusted with like responsibility for the person or estate of a stockholder, may call a special meeting of stockholders in accordance with the provisions of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, or may apply to the Court of Chancery for a decree summarily ordering an election as provided in Section 211 of the DGCL.

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If, at the time of filling any vacancy or any newly created directorship, the directors then in office constitute less than a majority of the whole Board (as constituted immediately prior to any such increase), the Court of Chancery may, upon application of any stockholder or stockholders holding at least 10% of the voting stock at the time outstanding having the right to vote for such directors, summarily order an election to be held to fill any such vacancies or newly created directorships, or to replace the directors chosen by the directors then in office as aforesaid, which election shall be governed by the provisions of Section 211 of the DGCL as far as applicable.

3.5 PLACE OF MEETINGS; MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE

The Board may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or outside the State of Delaware.

Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, members of the Board, or any committee designated by the Board, may participate in a meeting of the Board, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

3.6 REGULAR MEETINGS

Regular meetings of the Board may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board.

3.7 SPECIAL MEETINGS; NOTICE

Special meetings of the Board for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the chairperson of the Board, the chief executive officer, the president, the secretary or a majority of the authorized number of directors.

Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be:

(i) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone;

(ii) sent by United States first-class mail, postage prepaid;

(iii) sent by facsimile; or

(iv) sent by electronic mail,

directed to each director at that director’s address, telephone number, facsimile number or electronic mail address, as the case may be, as shown on the corporation’s records.

If the notice is (i) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone, (ii) sent by facsimile or (iii) sent by electronic mail, it shall be delivered or sent at least 24 hours before the time of the holding of the meeting. If the notice is sent by United States mail, it shall be deposited in the

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United States mail at least four days before the time of the holding of the meeting. Any oral notice may be communicated to the director. The notice need not specify the place of the meeting (if the meeting is to be held at the corporation’s principal executive office) nor the purpose of the meeting.

3.8 QUORUM; VOTING

At all meetings of the Board, a majority of the authorized number of directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the Board, then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present. A meeting at which a quorum is initially present may continue to transact business notwithstanding the withdrawal of directors, if any action taken is approved by at least a majority of the required quorum for that meeting.

The vote of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.

3.9 WAIVER OF NOTICE

Whenever notice is required to be given to a director under any provision of the DGCL or of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a written waiver thereof, signed by the director, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a director at a meeting of the Board shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the director attends such meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the Board, or of a committee of Board, need be specified in any written waiver of notice, unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.

3.10 BOARD ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING

Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

3.11 FEES AND COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS

Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the Board shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors.

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3.12 REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS

Any director may be removed from office by the stockholders of the corporation.

No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director prior to the expiration of such director’s term of office.

3.13 APPROVAL OF LOANS

Subject to compliance with applicable law, the corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the corporation or of its subsidiary, including any officer or employee who is a director of the corporation or its subsidiary, whenever, in the judgment of the Board, such loan, guaranty or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the corporation. The loan, guaranty or other assistance may be with or without interest and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the Board shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of stock of the corporation. Nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the corporation at common law or under any statute.

ARTICLE IV - COMMITTEES

4.1 COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS

The Board may, by resolution passed by a majority of the authorized number of directors, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the corporation. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board or in these bylaws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority to (i) approve or adopt, or recommend to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval, (ii) adopt, amend or repeal any bylaw of the corporation, (iii) fill any vacancies on the Board or on any committee, (iv) fix the compensation of the directors for serving on the Board or any committee, or (v) authorize a distribution to the stockholders of the corporation, except at a rate or in a periodic amount or within a price range determined by the Board.

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4.2 COMMITTEE MINUTES

Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Board when required.

4.3 MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES

Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, and held and taken in accordance with, the provisions of:

(i) Section 3.5 (place of meetings and meetings by telephone);

(ii) Section 3.6 (regular meetings);

(iii) Section 3.7 (special meetings; notice);

(iv) Section 3.8 (quorum; voting);

(v) Section 3.9 (waiver of notice); and

(vi) Section 3.10 (board action by written consent without a meeting)

with such changes in the context of those bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the Board and its members. However:

(i) the time of regular meetings of committees may be determined either by resolution of the Board or by resolution of the committee;

(ii) special meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the Board; and

(iii) notice of special meetings of committees shall also be given to all alternate members, who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the committee. The Board may adopt rules for the government of any committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these bylaws.

ARTICLE V - OFFICERS

5.1 OFFICERS

The officers of the corporation shall be a president and a secretary. The corporation may also have, at the discretion of the Board, a chairperson of the Board, a vice chairperson of the Board, a chief executive officer, a chief financial officer or treasurer, one or more vice presidents, one or more assistant vice presidents, one or more assistant treasurers, one or more assistant secretaries, and any such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of these bylaws. Any number of offices may be held by the same person.

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5.2 APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS

The Board shall appoint the officers of the corporation, except such officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 5.3 and 5.5 of these bylaws, subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment.

5.3 SUBORDINATE OFFICERS

The Board may appoint, or empower the chief executive officer or, in the absence of a chief executive officer, the president, to appoint, such other officers and agents as the business of the corporation may require. Each of such officers and agents shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform such duties as are provided in these bylaws or as the Board may from time to time determine.

5.4 REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS

Subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by an affirmative vote of the majority of the Board at any regular or special meeting of the Board or, except in the case of an officer chosen by the Board, by any officer upon whom such power of removal may be conferred by the Board.

Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to the corporation. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice. Unless otherwise specified in the notice of resignation, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the corporation under any contract to which the officer is a party.

5.5 VACANCIES IN OFFICES

Any vacancy occurring in any office of the corporation shall be filled by the Board or as provided in Section 5.3.

5.6 CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

The chairman of the Board, if such an officer be elected, shall, if present, preside at meetings of the Board and exercise and perform such other powers and duties as may from time to time be assigned to him by the Board or as may be prescribed by these bylaws. If there is no president, then the chairman of the Board shall also be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall have the powers and duties prescribed in Section 5.7 of these bylaws.

5.7 CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the Board to the chairman of the Board, if there be such an officer, the chief executive officer of the corporation shall, subject to the control of the Board, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and the

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officers of the corporation. He or she shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, in the absence or nonexistence of a chairman of the board, at all meetings of the Board. He or she shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the chief executive officer of a corporation, and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board or these bylaws.

5.8 PRESIDENT

Subject to such supervisory powers, if any, as may be given by the Board to the chairman of the Board and chief executive officer, if there be such an officer, the president of the corporation shall, subject to the control of the Board, have general supervision over the operation of the corporation, including the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the office of president of a corporation, and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board or these bylaws. The offices of president and chief executive officer may be held by the same person.

5.9 VICE PRESIDENT

In the absence or disability of the president, the vice presidents, if any, in order of their rank as fixed by the Board or, if not ranked, a vice president designated by the Board, shall perform all the duties of the president and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the restrictions upon, the president. The vice presidents shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as from time to time may be prescribed for them respectively by the Board, these bylaws, the president or the chairman of the Board.

5.10 SECRETARY

The secretary shall keep or cause to be kept, at the principal executive office of the corporation or such other place as the Board may direct, a book of minutes of all meetings and actions of directors, committees of directors, and stockholders. The minutes shall show the time and place of each meeting, whether regular or special (and, if special, how authorized and the notice given), the names of those present at directors’ meetings or committee meetings, the number of shares present or represented at stockholders’ meetings, and the proceedings thereof.

The secretary shall keep, or cause to be kept, at the principal executive office of the corporation or at the office of the corporation’s transfer agent or registrar, as determined by resolution of the Board, a share register, or a duplicate share register, showing the names of all stockholders and their addresses, the number and classes of shares held by each, the number and date of certificates evidencing such shares, and the number and date of cancellation of every certificate surrendered for cancellation.

The secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board required to be given by law or by these bylaws. He shall keep the seal of the corporation, if one be adopted, in safe custody and shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board or by these bylaws.

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5.11 CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER

The chief financial officer shall keep and maintain, or cause to be kept and maintained, adequate and correct books and records of accounts of the properties and business transactions of the corporation, including accounts of its assets, liabilities, receipts, disbursements, gains, losses, capital, retained earnings, and shares. The books of account shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection by any director.

The chief financial officer shall deposit all moneys and other valuables in the name and to the credit of the corporation with such depositories as may be designated by the Board. He shall disburse the funds of the corporation as may be ordered by the Board, shall render to the president and directors, whenever they request it, an account of all of his transactions as chief financial officer and of the financial condition of the corporation, and shall have other power and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board or these bylaws.

5.12 AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS

All officers of the corporation shall respectively have such authority and perform such duties in the management of the business of the corporation as may be designated from time to time by the Board or the stockholders and, to the extent not so provided, as generally pertain to their respective offices, subject to the control of the Board.

ARTICLE VI - RECORDS AND REPORTS

6.1 MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION OF RECORDS

The corporation shall, either at its principal executive office or at such place or places as designated by the Board, keep a record of its stockholders listing their names and addresses and the number and class of shares held by each stockholder, a copy of these bylaws as amended to date, accounting books, and other records.

Any stockholder of record, in person or by attorney or other agent, shall, upon written demand under oath stating the purpose thereof, have the right during the usual hours for business to inspect for any proper purpose the corporation’s stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records and to make copies or extracts therefrom. A proper purpose shall mean a purpose reasonably related to such person’s interest as a stockholder. In every instance where an attorney or other agent is the person who seeks the right to inspection, the demand under oath shall be accompanied by a power of attorney or such other writing that authorizes the attorney or other agent so to act on behalf of the stockholder. The demand under oath shall be directed to the corporation at its registered office in Delaware or at its principal executive office.

6.2 REPRESENTATION OF SHARES OF OTHER CORPORATIONS

The chairperson of the Board, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or assistant secretary of this corporation, or any other person authorized by the Board or the president

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or a vice president, is authorized to vote, represent, and exercise on behalf of this corporation all rights incident to any and all shares of any other corporation or corporations standing in the name of this corporation. The authority granted herein may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.

ARTICLE VII - GENERAL MATTERS

7.1 CHECKS, DRAFTS, EVIDENCES OF INDEBTEDNESS

From time to time, the Board shall determine by resolution which person or persons may sign or endorse all checks, drafts, other orders for payment of money, notes or other evidences of indebtedness that are issued in the name of or payable to the corporation, and only the persons so authorized shall sign or endorse those instruments.

7.2 EXECUTION OF CORPORATE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTS

The Board, except as otherwise provided in these bylaws, may authorize any officer or officers, or agent or agents, to enter into any contract or execute any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the corporation; such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized or ratified by the Board or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.

7.3 STOCK CERTIFICATES; PARTLY PAID SHARES

The shares of the corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the corporation. Notwithstanding the adoption of such a resolution by the Board, every holder of stock represented by certificates, and upon request every holder of uncertificated shares, shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the corporation by the chairperson or vice-chairperson of the Board, or the president or vice-president, and by the treasurer or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if he or she were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

The corporation may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor. Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent any such partly paid shares, or upon the books and records of the

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corporation in the case of uncertificated partly paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated. Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully paid shares, the corporation shall declare a dividend upon partly paid shares of the same class, but only upon the basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.

7.4 SPECIAL DESIGNATION ON CERTIFICATES

If the corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the DGCL, in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate that the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.

7.5 LOST CERTIFICATES

Except as provided in this Section 7.5, no new certificates for shares shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the latter is surrendered to the corporation and cancelled at the same time. The corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to give the corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

7.6 CONSTRUCTION; DEFINITIONS

Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of construction, and definitions in the DGCL shall govern the construction of these bylaws. Without limiting the generality of this provision, the singular number includes the plural, the plural number includes the singular, and the term “person” includes both a corporation and a natural person.

7.7 DIVIDENDS

The Board, subject to any restrictions contained in either (i) the DGCL, or (ii) the certificate of incorporation, may declare and pay dividends upon the shares of its capital stock. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the corporation’s capital stock.

The Board may set apart out of any of the funds of the corporation available for dividends a reserve or reserves for any proper purpose and may abolish any such reserve. Such purposes shall include but not be limited to equalizing dividends, repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, and meeting contingencies.

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7.8 FISCAL YEAR

The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board and may be changed by the Board.

7.9 SEAL

The corporation may adopt a corporate seal, which shall be adopted and which may be altered by the Board. The corporation may use the corporate seal by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any other manner reproduced.

7.10 TRANSFER OF STOCK

Upon surrender to the corporation or the transfer agent of the corporation of a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignation or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate, and record the transaction in its books.

7.11 STOCK TRANSFER AGREEMENTS

The corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the corporation of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL.

7.12 REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS

The corporation:

(i) shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends and to vote as such owner;

(ii) shall be entitled to hold liable for calls and assessments the person registered on its books as the owner of shares; and

(iii) shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of another person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.

7.13 WAIVER OF NOTICE

Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a written waiver, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver

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by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends such meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission, unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.

ARTICLE VIII - NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION

8.1 NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION

Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders pursuant to the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any notice to stockholders given by the corporation under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the corporation. Any such consent shall be deemed revoked if:

(i) the corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the corporation in accordance with such consent; and

(ii) such inability becomes known to the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice.

However, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

Any notice given pursuant to the preceding paragraph shall be deemed given:

(i)

if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

 

(ii)

if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

 

(iii)

if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and

 

(iv)

if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.

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An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the corporation that the notice has been given by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

8.2 DEFINITION OF ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION

An “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

8.3 INAPPLICABILITY

Notice by a form of electronic transmission shall not apply to Sections 164, 296, 311, 312 or 324 of the DGCL.

ARTICLE IX - INDEMNIFICATION

9.1 INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

The corporation shall, to the maximum extent and in the manner permitted by the DGCL as the same now exists or may hereafter be amended, indemnify any person against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any threatened, pending or completed action, suit, or proceeding in which such person was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the corporation; provided, however, that the corporation may modify the extent of such indemnification by individual contracts with its directors and officers and, provided further, that the corporation shall not be required to indemnify any director or officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized in advance by the Board, (iii) such indemnification is provided by the corporation, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the corporation under the DGCL or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made pursuant to an individual contract. For purposes of this Section 9.1, a “director” or “officer” of the corporation shall mean any person (a) who is or was a director or officer of the corporation, (b) who is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or (c) who was a director or officer of a corporation which was a predecessor corporation of the corporation or of another enterprise at the request of such predecessor corporation.

The corporation shall pay the expenses (including attorney’s fees) incurred by a director or officer of the corporation entitled to indemnification hereunder in defending any action, suit or proceeding referred to in this Section 9.1 in advance of its final disposition; provided, however, that payment of expenses incurred by a director or officer of the corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding shall be made only upon receipt of an undertaking by the director or officer to repay all amounts advanced if it should ultimately be determined that the director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified under this Section 9.1 or otherwise.

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The rights conferred on any person by this Article shall not be exclusive of any other rights which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the corporation’s certificate of incorporation, these bylaws, agreement, vote of the stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

Any repeal or modification of the foregoing provisions of this Article shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any person in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such repeal or modification.

9.2 INDEMNIFICATION OF OTHERS

The corporation shall have the power, to the maximum extent and in the manner permitted by the DGCL as the same now exists or may hereafter be amended, to indemnify any person other than a director or officer (as such terms are defined in Section 9.1 above) against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any threatened, pending or completed action, suit, or proceeding, in which such person was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that such person is or was an employee or agent of the corporation. For purposes of this Section 9.2, an “employee” or “agent” of the corporation (other than a director or officer, as such terms are defined in Section 9.1 above) shall mean any person (i) who is or was an employee or agent of the corporation, (ii) who is or was serving at the request of the corporation as an employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, or (iii) who was an employee or agent of a corporation which was a predecessor corporation of the corporation or of another enterprise at the request of such predecessor corporation.

9.3 INSURANCE

The corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, or arising out of his or her status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify him or her against such liability under the provisions of the DGCL.

9.4 EXPENSES

The corporation shall advance to any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or officer of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director or officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, prior to the final

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disposition of the proceeding, promptly following request therefor, all expenses incurred by any such director or officer in connection with such proceeding, upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such person to repay said amounts if it should be determined ultimately that such person is not entitled to be indemnified under this bylaw or otherwise; provided, however, that the corporation shall not be required to advance expenses to any such director or officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless the proceeding was authorized in advance by the Board.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless otherwise determined pursuant to Section 9.5, no advance shall be made by the corporation to an officer of the corporation (except by reason of the fact that such officer is or was a director of the corporation in which event this paragraph shall not apply) in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, if a determination is reasonably and promptly made (i) by the Board by a majority vote of a quorum consisting of directors who were not parties to the proceeding, or (ii) if such quorum is not obtainable, or, even if obtainable, a quorum of disinterested directors so directs, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that the facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation.

9.5 NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS

The rights conferred on any person by this bylaw shall not be exclusive of any other right which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the certificate of incorporation, bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in his official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding office. The corporation is specifically authorized to enter into individual contracts with any or all of its directors, officers, employees or agents respecting indemnification and advances, to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL.

9.6 SURVIVAL OF RIGHTS

The rights conferred on any person by this bylaw shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or other agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

9.7 AMENDMENTS

Any repeal or modification of this bylaw shall only be prospective and shall not affect the rights under this bylaw in effect at the time of the alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that is the cause of any proceeding against any agent of the corporation.

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ARTICLE X - AMENDMENTS

These bylaws may be adopted, amended or repealed by the stockholders of the corporation. However, the corporation may, in its certificate of incorporation, confer the power to adopt, amend or repeal these bylaws upon the directors. The fact that such power has been so conferred upon the directors shall not divest the stockholders of the power, nor limit their power, to adopt, amend or repeal these bylaws as set forth above.

 

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