SONUS NETWORKS, INC.

 

AMENDED AND RESTATED BY-LAWS

 

Article I.  — General.

 

1.1         Offices.  The registered office of Sonus Networks, Inc. (the “Company”) shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, State of Delaware.  The Company may also have offices at such other places both within and without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the Company may require.

 

1.2         Seal.  The seal, if any, of the Company shall be in the form of a circle and shall have inscribed thereon the name of the Company, the year of its organization and the words “Corporate Seal, Delaware.”

 

1.3         Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Company shall be the period from January 1 through December 31.

 

Article II.  — Stockholders.

 

2.1         Place of Meetings.  Each meeting of the stockholders shall be held upon notice as hereinafter provided, at such place, if any, as the Board of Directors shall have determined and as shall be stated in such notice.

 

2.2         Annual Meeting.  The annual meeting of the stockholders shall be held each year on such date and at such time as the Board of Directors may determine.  At each annual meeting the stockholders entitled to vote shall elect such members of the Board of Directors as are standing for election, by plurality vote by ballot, and they may transact such other corporate business as may properly be brought before the meeting.

 

2.3         Quorum.  At all meetings of the stockholders the holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum requisite for the transaction of business except as otherwise provided by law, the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, or these by-laws.  Whether or not there is such a quorum at any meeting, the chairman of the meeting or the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or by proxy, by a majority vote, may adjourn the meeting from time to time without notice of such adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof, are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken.  If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.  At such adjourned meeting, at which the requisite amount of voting stock shall be represented, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted if the meeting had been held as originally called.  The stockholders present in person or by proxy at a duly called meeting at which a quorum is present may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum.

 

2.4         Right to Vote; Proxies.  Subject to the provisions of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, each holder of a share or shares of capital stock of the Company having the right to vote at any meeting shall be entitled to one vote for each such share of stock held by him.  Any stockholder entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders may vote either in person or by proxy, but no proxy that is dated more than three years prior to the meeting at which it is offered shall confer the right to vote thereat unless the proxy provides that it shall be effective for a longer period.  A proxy may be granted by a writing executed by the stockholder or his authorized agent or by transmission or authorization of transmission of a telegram, cablegram, or other means of electronic transmission to the person who will be the holder of the proxy or to a proxy solicitation firm, proxy support service organization, or like agent duly authorized by the person who will be the holder of the proxy to receive such transmission, subject to the conditions set forth in Section 212 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as it may be amended from time to time (the “General Corporation Law”).  A proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power.

 

2.5         Voting.  At all meetings of stockholders, except as otherwise expressly provided by the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, these by-laws, the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Company, or applicable law or pursuant to any regulation applicable to the Company or its securities, (i) in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of a majority of shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on such matter shall be the act of the stockholders and (ii) directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors.

 

2.6         Notice of Annual Meetings.  Notice of the date, time and place, if any, of each annual meeting of the stockholders shall be given, at least ten (10) days but not more than sixty (60) days prior to the meeting, to each stockholder of record entitled to vote.  Such notice shall be given personally or by mail or, to the extent and in the manner permitted by applicable law, by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given.  Notices are deemed given as provided in Section 6.2(a) of these by-laws.  The Board of Directors may postpone any annual meeting of the stockholders at its discretion, even after notice thereof has been given.  Notice need not be given to any stockholder who submits a written waiver of notice signed by him or waives notice by electronic transmission, whether before or after the time of such meeting.  Attendance of a stockholder at a meeting of stockholders shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the stockholder attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.  Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be specified in any waiver of notice.

 

2.7         Stockholders’ List.  A complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders, arranged in alphabetical order and showing the address of each stockholder, and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder, shall be prepared by the Secretary at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders.  Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting: (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Company.  If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.  If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonable accessible electronic network.

 

2.8         Special Meetings.  Special meetings of the stockholders for any purpose or purposes, unless otherwise provided by law, may be called only by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President, or a majority of the Board of Directors.  Any such person or persons may postpone any special meeting of the stockholders at its or their discretion, even after notice thereof has been mailed.

 

2.9         Notice of Special Meetings.  Notice of the date, time and place, if any, of each special meeting of the stockholders shall be given, at least ten (10) days but not more than sixty (60) days prior to the meeting, to each stockholder of record entitled to vote.  Such notice shall be given personally or by mail or, to the extent and in the manner permitted by applicable law, by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given.  Notices are deemed given as provided in Section 6.2(a) of these by-laws.  No business may be transacted at such meeting except that referred to in said notice, or in a supplemental notice given also in compliance with the provisions hereof, or such other business as may be germane or supplementary to that stated in said notice or notices.  Notice need not be given to any stockholder who submits a written waiver of notice signed by him or waives notice by electronic transmission, whether before or after the time of such meeting.  Attendance of a stockholder at a meeting of stockholders shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the stockholder attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.  Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be specified in any waiver of notice.

 

2.10       InspectorsThe Company shall, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof.  Such inspectors shall have the powers and duties set forth in Section 231 of the General Corporation Law as currently in effect or as the same may hereafter be amended.  Each inspector, before discharging his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector’s ability.  At the meeting for which the inspector or inspectors are appointed, he or they shall, in addition to the duties set forth in Section 231 of the General Corporation Law, open and close the polls, receive and take charge of the proxies and ballots, and decide all questions touching on the qualifications of voters, the validity of proxies, and the acceptance and rejection of votes.  If any inspector previously appointed shall fail to attend or refuse or be unable to act at a meeting of stockholders, the presiding officer shall appoint an inspector to act at the meeting.

 

2.11       Stockholders’ Consent in Lieu of Meeting.  Unless otherwise provided in the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, any action required to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Company, or any action that may be taken at any annual or special meeting of such stockholders, may be taken only at such a meeting, and not by written consent of stockholders.

 

2.12        Notice of Stockholder Business and Nominations.

 

(a)           Annual Meetings of Stockholders.  (1) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors of the Company and the proposal of other business to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders only (A) pursuant to the Company’s notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto), (B) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof or (C) by any stockholder of the Company who was a stockholder of record of the Company at the time the notice provided for in this Section 2.12 is delivered to the Secretary of the Company, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 2.12.

 

(2)           For any nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (C) of paragraph (a)(1) of this Section 2.12, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Company and any such proposed business (other than the nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors) must constitute a proper matter for stockholder action.  To be timely, a stockholder’s notice shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company not later than the close of business on the ninetieth (90th) day, nor earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day, prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting (provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than seventy (70) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder must be so delivered not earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made by the Company).  In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.  Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election as a director (i) all information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors in an election contest, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to and in accordance with Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and (ii) such person’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected; (B) as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the of such stockholder and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made; and (C) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made (i) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the Company’s books, and of such beneficial owner, (ii) the class or series and number of shares of capital stock of the Company which are owned beneficially and of record by such stockholder and such beneficial owner, (iii) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding with respect to the nomination or proposal between or among such stockholder and such beneficial owner, any of their respective affiliates or associates, and any others acting in concert with any of the foregoing, (iv) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any derivative or short positions, profit interests, options, warrants, stock appreciation or similar rights, hedging transactions, and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into as of the date of the stockholder’s notice by, or on behalf of, such stockholder and such beneficial owners, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, manage risk or benefit of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such stockholder or such beneficial owner, with respect to shares of stock of the Company, (v) a representation that the stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Company entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such business or nomination, and (vi) a representation whether the stockholder or the beneficial owner, if any, intends or is part of a group which intends (a) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Company’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal or elect the nominee and/or (b) otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal or nomination.  The foregoing notice requirements of this Section 2.12 shall be deemed satisfied by a stockholder with respect to business other than a nomination if the stockholder has notified the Company of his, her or its intention to present a proposal at an annual meeting in compliance with applicable rules and regulations promulgated under the Exchange Act and such stockholder’s proposal has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the Company to solicit proxies for such annual meeting.  The Company may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as it may reasonably require to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as a director of the Company.

 

(3)           Notwithstanding anything in the second sentence of paragraph (a)(2) of this Section 2.12 to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors of the Company is increased effective at the annual meeting and there is no public announcement by the Company naming the nominees for the additional directorships at least one hundred (100) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 2.12 shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for the additional directorships, if it shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company not later than the close of business on the tenth (10th) day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Company.

 

(b)           Special Meetings of Stockholders.  Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Company’s notice of meeting.  Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Company’s notice of meeting (1) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof or (2) provided that the Board of Directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by any stockholder of the Company who is a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this Section 2.12 is delivered to the Secretary of the Company, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and upon such election and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 2.12.  In the event the Company calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board of Directors, any such stockholder entitled to vote in such election of directors may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be) for election to such position(s) as specified in the Company’s notice of meeting, if the stockholder’s notice required by paragraph (a)(2) of this Section 2.12 shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company not earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting.  In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

 

(c)           General.  (1) Only such persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.12 shall be eligible to be elected at an annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Company to serve as directors and only such business shall be conducted at a meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.12.  Except as otherwise provided by law, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power and duty (A) to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.12 (including whether the stockholder or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s nominee or proposal in compliance with such stockholder’s representation as required by clause (a)(2)(C)(v) of this Section 2.12) and (B) if any proposed nomination or business was not made or proposed in compliance with this Section 2.12, to declare that such nomination shall be disregarded or that such proposed business shall not be transacted.  Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.12, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Company to present a nomination or proposed business, such nomination shall be disregarded and such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Company.  For purposes of this Section 2.12, to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders.

 

(2)           For purposes of this Section 2.12, “public announcement” shall include disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or other national news service or in a document publicly filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

 

(3)           Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.12, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 2.12; provided however, that any references in these by-laws to the Exchange Act or the rules promulgated thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit any requirements applicable to nominations or proposals as to any other business to be considered pursuant to this Section 2.12 (including paragraphs (a)(1)(C) and (b) hereof), and compliance with paragraphs (a)(1)(C) and (b) of this Section 2.12 shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations or submit other business (other than, as provided in the penultimate sentence of (a)(2), matters brought properly under and in compliance with Rule 14a-8 of the Exchange Act, as may be amended from time to time).    Nothing in this Section 2.12 shall be deemed to affect any rights (A) of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Company’s proxy statement pursuant to applicable rules and regulations promulgated under the Exchange Act or (B) of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors pursuant to any applicable provisions of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation.

 

2.13        Conduct of Meetings.  The date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced at the meeting by the person presiding over the meeting.  The Board of Directors may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate.  Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the person presiding over any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to convene and to adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such presiding person, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting.  Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the presiding person of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Company, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the presiding person of the meeting shall determine; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants.  The presiding person at any meeting of stockholders, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting, shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a matter or business was not properly brought before the meeting and if such presiding person should so determine, such presiding person shall so declare to the meeting and any such matter or business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted or considered.  Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the person presiding over the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

 

Article III.  — Directors.

 

3.1         Number of Directors.

 

(a)           Except as otherwise provided by law, the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, or these by-laws, the property and business of the Company shall be managed by or under the direction of a board of directors.  Directors need not be stockholders, residents of Delaware, or citizens of the United States.  The use of the phrase “whole board” herein refers to the total number of directors which the Company would have if there were no vacancies or unfilled newly-created directorships.

 

(b)           The number of directors constituting the full Board of Directors shall be as determined from time to time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors.  Subject to the provisions of this Section 3.1(b), the Board of Directors shall be divided into three classes of directors, such classes to be as nearly equal in number of directors as possible, having staggered three-year terms of office, the term of office of the directors of the first such class to expire as of the first annual meeting of the Company’s stockholders following the date on which the Amended and Restated By-laws initially became effective, those of the second class to expire as of the second annual meeting of the Company’s stockholders following such effective date, and those of the third class as of the third annual meeting of the Company’s stockholders following such effective date, such that at each annual meeting of stockholders after such effective date, nominees will stand for election to succeed those directors whose terms are to expire as of such meeting.  At each annual meeting of the Company’s stockholders commencing with the annual meeting held in 2009, directors elected to succeed those directors whose terms then expire shall be elected at such meeting to hold office for a term expiring at the second annual meeting of stockholders following the effectiveness of the Certificate of Amendment to the Certificate of Incorporation.  Commencing with the second annual meeting of the Company’s stockholders following the effectiveness of the Certificate of Amendment to the Certificate of Incorporation, the foregoing classification of the Board of Directors shall cease and each director shall be elected annually at each annual meeting of the Company’s stockholders.  Members of the Board of Directors shall hold office until the annual meeting of stockholders at which their respective successors are elected and qualified or until their earlier death, incapacity, resignation, or removal.

 

(c)           Except as the General Corporation Law or the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation may otherwise require, newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors or any vacancies in the Board of Directors resulting from death, incapacity, disqualification, resignation, or removal from office or other cause may only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director.  Any director so chosen shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such director shall have been chosen and until such director’s successor shall be elected and qualified.  No decrease in the number of directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

 

3.2         Resignation.  Any director of the Company may resign at any time by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Chairman of the Board, the President, or the Secretary of the Company.  Such resignation shall take effect at the time specified therein, at the time of receipt if no time is specified therein and at the time of acceptance if the effectiveness of such resignation is conditioned upon its acceptance.  Unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

 

3.3         Removal.  Except as may otherwise be provided by the General Corporation Law or the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed (i) prior to the second annual meeting of the Company’s stockholders following the effectiveness of the Certificate of Amendment to the Certificate of Incorporation, only for cause and only by the vote of the holders of 66 2/3% of the shares of the Company’s stock entitled to vote for the election of directors, and (ii) after the second annual meeting of the Company’s stockholders following the effectiveness of the Certificate of Amendment to the Certificate of Incorporation, with or without cause but only by the vote of the holders of 66 2/3% of the shares of the Company’s stock entitled to vote for the election of directors.

 

3.4         Place of Meetings and Books.  The Board of Directors may hold their meetings and keep the books of the Company outside the State of Delaware, at such places as they may from time to time determine.

 

3.5         General Powers.  In addition to the powers and authority expressly conferred upon them by these by-laws, the board may exercise all such powers of the Company and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by law or by the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation or by these by-laws directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

 

3.6         Other Committees.  The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more directors of the Company.  Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors or in these by-laws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Company to the extent permitted by law, and may authorize the seal of the Company to be affixed to all papers which may require it.  Such committee or committees shall have such name or names as may be determined from time to time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors.

 

3.7         Powers Denied to Committees.  Committees of the Board of Directors shall not, in any event, have the power or authority to: (i) approve or adopt, or recommend to the stockholders, any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by the General Corporation Law to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (ii) adopt, amend or repeal any by-law of the Company.

 

3.8         Substitute Committee Member.  The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee.  In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of such absent or disqualified member.  Any committee shall keep regular minutes of its proceedings and report the same to the Board of Directors as may be required by the Board of Directors.

 

3.9         Compensation of Directors.  The Board of Directors shall have the power to fix the compensation of directors and members of committees of the Board.  The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors, may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary as director and may receive stock options, grants and issuances of restricted stock under the Company’s equity incentive plan(s).  No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Company in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor.  Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings.

 

3.10       Regular Meetings.  No notice shall be required for regular meetings of the Board of Directors for which the time and place (within or without the State of Delaware) have been fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

 

3.11       Special Meetings.  Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time or place, within or without the State of Delaware, whenever called by the Chairman of the Board, if any, the President, or the Secretary upon the written request of two or more directors.  Notice of a special meeting of the Board of Directors shall be given by the person or persons calling the meeting at least forty-eight hours before the special meeting to each director, personally or by telephone, facsimile, electronic mail or other electronic transmission to the extent and in the manner permitted by applicable law.  Notice need not be given to any director who submits a written waiver of notice signed by him or waives notice by electronic transmission, whether before or after the time of such meeting.  Attendance of any director at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when such director attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any special meeting of the directors need be specified in any waiver of notice.

 

3.12       Quorum.  At all meetings of the Board of Directors, a majority of the whole board shall be necessary and sufficient to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and the act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise specifically permitted or provided by law, or by the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, or by these by-laws.  If at any meeting of the board there shall be less than a quorum present, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting from time to time until a quorum is obtained, and no further notice thereof need be given other than by announcement at said meeting that shall be so adjourned.

 

3.13       Telephonic Participation in Meetings.  Members of the Board of Directors, or any committee designated by the Board of Directors, may participate in a meeting thereof by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this by-law shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

 

3.14       Action by Consent.  Unless otherwise restricted by the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation or these by-laws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board of Directors or such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission and the writing or writings or electronic transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee in accordance with applicable law.

 

Article IV.  — OFFICERS.

 

4.1         Selection; Statutory Officers.  The officers of the Company shall be chosen by the Board of Directors.  There shall be a President, a Secretary, and a Treasurer, and there may be a Chairman of the Board of Directors, one or more Vice Presidents, one or more Assistant Secretaries, and one or more Assistant Treasurers, as the Board of Directors may elect.  Any number of offices may be held by the same person, except that the offices of President and Secretary shall not be held by the same person simultaneously.

 

4.2         Time of Election. The officers designated in Section 4.1 shall be chosen by the Board of Directors at its first meeting after each annual meeting of stockholders.  None of said officers need be a director.

 

4.3         Additional Officers.  The board may appoint such other officers and agents as it shall deem necessary, who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the board.

 

4.4         Terms of Office.  Each officer of the Company shall hold office until his successor is chosen and qualified, or until his earlier resignation or removal.  Any officer elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the Board of Directors, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contractual rights of such officer.  Any officer may resign at any time upon written notice to the Company.

 

4.5         Compensation of Officers. The Board of Directors shall have power to fix the compensation of all officers of the Company. It may authorize any officer, upon whom the power of appointing subordinate officers may have been conferred, to fix the compensation of such subordinate officers.

 

4.6         Chairman of the Board.  The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and directors, and shall have such other duties as may be assigned to him from time to time by the Board of Directors.

 

4.7         President.  Unless the Board of Directors otherwise determines, the President shall be the chief executive officer and head of the Company.  Unless there is a Chairman of the Board, the President shall preside at all meetings of directors and stockholders. Under the supervision of the Board of Directors, the President shall have the general control and management of its business and affairs, subject, however, to the right of the Board of Directors to confer any specific power, except such as may be by law exclusively conferred on the President, upon any other officer or officers of the Company.  The President shall perform and do all acts and things incident to the position of President and such other duties as may be assigned to him from time to time by the Board of Directors.

 

4.8         Vice-Presidents.  The Vice-Presidents shall perform such duties on behalf of the Company as may be respectively assigned to them from time to time by the Board of Directors or by the President.  The Board of Directors may designate one of the Vice-Presidents as the Executive Vice-President, and in the absence or inability of the President to act, such Executive Vice-President shall have and possess all of the powers and discharge all of the duties of the President, subject to the control of the Board of Directors.

 

4.9         Treasurer.  The Treasurer shall have the care and custody of all the funds and securities of the Company that may come into his hands as Treasurer, and the power and authority to endorse checks, drafts and other instruments for the payment of money for deposit or collection when necessary or proper and to deposit the same to the credit of the Company in such bank or banks or depository as the Board of  Directors, or the officers or agents to whom the Board of Directors may delegate such authority, may designate, and he may endorse all commercial documents requiring endorsements for or on behalf of the Company.  He may sign all receipts and vouchers for the payments made to the Company.  He shall render an account of his transactions to the Board of Directors as often as the board or the committee shall require the same.  He shall enter regularly in the books to be kept by him for that purpose full and adequate account of all moneys received and paid by him on account of the Company.  He shall perform all acts incident to the position of Treasurer, subject to the control of the Board of Directors.  He shall when requested, pursuant to vote of the Board of Directors, give a bond to the Company conditioned for the faithful performance of his duties, the expense of which bond shall be borne by the Company.

 

4.10       Secretary.  The Secretary shall keep the minutes of all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders; he shall attend to the giving and serving of all notices of the Company.  Except as otherwise ordered by the Board of Directors, he shall attest the seal of the Company upon all contracts and instruments executed under such seal and shall affix the seal of the Company thereto and to all certificates of shares of capital stock of the Company.  He shall have charge of the stock certificate book, transfer book and stock ledger, and such other books and papers as the Board of Directors may direct.  He shall, in general, perform all the duties of Secretary, subject to the control of the Board of Directors.

 

4.11       Assistant Secretary.  The Board of Directors or any two of the officers of the Company acting jointly may appoint or remove one or more Assistant Secretaries of the Company.  Any Assistant Secretary upon his appointment shall perform such duties of the Secretary, and also any and all such other duties as the Board of Directors or the President or the Executive Vice-President or the Treasurer or the Secretary may designate.

 

4.12       Assistant Treasurer.  The Board of Directors or any two of the officers of the Company acting jointly may appoint or remove one or more Assistant Treasurers of the Company.  Any Assistant Treasurer upon his appointment shall perform such of the duties of the Treasurer, and also any and all such other duties as the Board of Directors or the President or the Executive Vice-President or the Treasurer or the Secretary may designate.

 

4.13       Subordinate Officers.  The Board of Directors may select such subordinate officers as it may deem desirable. Each such officer shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform such duties as the Board of Directors may prescribe.  The Board of Directors may, from time to time, authorize any officer to appoint and remove subordinate officers and to prescribe the powers and duties thereof.

 

Article V.  — Stock.

 

5.1         Stock.  The shares of the Company shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares.  Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Company.  Every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Company by both of (i) either the Chairman or Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors, or the President or a Vice-President, and (ii) any one of the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary representing the number or shares registered in certificate form and shall be sealed with the corporate seal of the Company.  The certificates of stock of the Company shall be numbered and shall be entered in the books of the Company as they are issued.  Any or all the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile.  In case any officer or officers, transfer agent or registrar who shall have signed, or whose facsimile signature or signatures shall have been used on, any such certificate or certificates shall cease to be such officer or officers, transfer agent or registrar of the Company, whether because of death, resignation or otherwise, before such certificate or certificates shall have been issued, such certificate or certificates may nevertheless be issued by the Company with the same effect as though the person or persons who signed such certificate or certificates or whose facsimile signature shall have been used thereon had not ceased to be such officer or officers, transfer agent or registrar of the Company.

 

5.2         Fractional Share Interests.  The Company may, but shall not be required to, issue fractions of a share. If the Company does not issue fractions of a share, it shall (i) arrange for the disposition of fractional interests by those entitled thereto, (ii) pay in cash the fair value of fractions of a share as of the time when those entitled to receive such fractions are determined, or (iii) issue scrip or warrants in registered form (either represented by a certificate or uncertificated) or in bearer form (represented by a certificate) that shall entitle the holder to receive a full share upon the surrender of such scrip or warrants aggregating a full share. A certificate for a fractional share or an uncertificated fractional share shall, but scrip or warrants shall not unless otherwise provided therein, entitle the holder to exercise voting rights, to receive dividends thereon, and to participate in any of the assets of the Company in the event of liquidation.  The Board of Directors may cause scrip or warrants to be issued subject to the conditions that they shall become void if not exchanged for certificates representing full shares or uncertificated full shares before a specified date, or subject to the conditions that the shares for which scrip or warrants are exchangeable may be sold by the Company and the proceeds thereof distributed to the holders of scrip or warrants, or subject to any other conditions that the Board of Directors may impose.

 

5.3         Transfers of Stock.  Subject to any transfer restrictions then in force, the shares of stock of the Company shall be transferable only upon its books by the holders thereof in person or by their duly authorized attorneys or legal representatives, and upon the surrender of the certificate or certificates for such shares properly endorsed (or, with respect to uncertificated shares, by delivery of duly executed instructions or in any other manner permitted by applicable law).  The Company shall be entitled to treat the holder of record of any share or shares of stock as the holder in fact thereof and accordingly shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share on the part of any other person whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof save as expressly provided by the laws of Delaware.

 

5.4         Record Date.  For the purpose of determining the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or the allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion, or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty (60) days nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other action.  If no such record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held; and the record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.  A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

 

5.5         Transfer Agent and Registrar.  The Board of Directors may appoint one or more transfer agents or transfer clerks and one or more registrars and may require all certificates of stock to bear the signature or signatures of any of them.

 

5.6         Dividends.

 

(a)           Power to Declare. Dividends upon the capital stock of the Company, subject to the provisions of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting, pursuant to law. Dividends may be paid in  cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and the General Corporation Law.

 

(b)           Reserves.  Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Company lawfully available for dividends such sum or sums as the directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Company, or for such other purpose as the directors shall think conducive to the interest of the Company, and the directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.

 

5.7         Lost, Stolen, or Destroyed Certificates.  No certificates for shares of stock of the Company (or uncertificated shares, as the case may be) shall be issued in place of any certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed, except upon production of such evidence of the loss, theft, or destruction and upon indemnification of the Company and its agents to such extent and in such manner as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

 

5.8         Inspection of Books.  Any stockholder, in person or by attorney or other agent, shall, upon written demand under oath stating the purpose thereof, have the right during the usual hours for business to inspect for any proper purpose the Company’s stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records; and no stockholder shall have any right to inspect any account or book or document of the Company except as conferred by law.

 

Article VI.  — Miscellaneous Management Provisions.

 

6.1         Checks, Drafts, and Notes.  All checks, drafts, or orders for the payment of money, and all notes and acceptances of the Company shall be signed by such officer or officers, or such agent or agents, as the Board of Directors may designate.

 

6.2         Notices.

 

(a)           Notices to directors may be given personally or by telephone, mail, facsimile, electronic mail or other electronic transmission to the extent and in the manner permitted by applicable law.  Notices to stockholders may be given personally or by mail or, to the extent and in the manner permitted by applicable law, by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given.  In accordance with Section 232 of the General Corporation Law, notices are deemed given (i) if by mail, when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Company, or, if a stockholder shall have filed with the Secretary of the Company a written request that notices to such stockholder be mailed to some other address, then directed to such stockholder at such other address; (ii) if by facsimile, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (iii) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive such notice; (iv) if by posting on an electronic network together with a separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later to occur of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice of such posting; and (v) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder in the manner consented to by the stockholder.  Notice shall be deemed to have been given to all stockholders of record who share an address if notice is given in accordance with Section 233 of the General Corporation Law.  An affidavit of the Secretary, Assistant Secretary or any transfer agent of the Company that the notice has been given shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

 

(b)           Whenever any notice is required to be given under the provisions of any applicable law or of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation or of these by-laws, a written waiver of notice, signed by the person or persons entitled to said notice, or a waiver of notice by electronic transmission, whether before or after the time stated therein or the meeting or action to which such notice relates, shall be deemed equivalent to notice.  Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

 

6.3         Conflict of Interest.  No contract or transaction between the Company and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the Company and any other corporation, partnership, association, or other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are directors or officers, or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the board or committee thereof that authorized the contract or transaction, or solely because any such director’s or officer’s votes are counted for such purpose, if: (i) the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board of Directors or the committee, and the Board of Directors or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative vote of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum; or (ii) the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders of the Company entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction as specifically approved in good faith by vote of such stockholders; or (iii) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Company as of the time it is authorized, approved, or ratified, by the Board of Directors, a committee or the stockholders. Common or interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee that authorizes the contract or transaction.

 

6.4         Voting of Securities Owned by the Company.  Subject always to the specific directions of the Board of Directors, (i) any shares or other securities issued by any other entity and owned or controlled by the Company may be voted in person at any meeting of security holders of such other entity by the President of the Company if he is present at such meeting, or in his absence by the Treasurer of the Company if he is present at such meeting, and (ii) whenever, in the judgment of the President, it is desirable for the Company to execute a proxy or written consent in respect to any shares or other securities issued by any other entity and owned by the Company, such proxy or consent shall be executed in the name of the Company by the President, without the necessity of any authorization by the Board of Directors, affixation of corporate seal or countersignature or attestation by another officer, provided that if the President is unable to execute such proxy or consent by reason of sickness, absence from the United States shall have full right, power and authority to vote the shares or other securities issued by such other entity and owned by the Company the same as such shares or other securities might be voted by the Company.

 

Article VII.  — INDEMNIFICATION.

 

7.1         Right to Indemnification.  Each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a “Proceeding”), by reason of being or having been a director or officer of the Company or, while a director or officer of the Company, serving or having served at the request of the Company as a director, trustee, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to an employee benefit plan (an “Indemnitee”), shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Company to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended, against all expense, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, ERISA excise taxes or penalties and amounts paid in settlement) reasonably incurred or suffered by such Indemnitee in connection therewith and such indemnification shall continue as to an Indemnitee who has ceased to be a director, trustee, officer, employee, or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the Indemnitee’s heirs, executors, and administrators; provided, however, that, except as provided in Section 7.2 hereof with respect to Proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification or Advancement of Expenses, the Company shall indemnify any such Indemnitee in connection with a Proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such Indemnitee only if such Proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board of Directors of the Company.  The right to indemnification conferred in this Article 7 shall be a contract right and shall include the right to be paid by the Company the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred in defending any such Proceeding in advance of its final disposition (an “Advancement of Expenses”); provided, however, that, to the extent required by law, such Advancement of Expenses shall be made only upon the Company’s receipt of an undertaking (an “Undertaking”), by or on behalf of such Indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal (a “Final Adjudication”) that such Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under this Article 7 or otherwise.

 

7.2         Right of Indemnitee to Bring Suit. If a claim under Section 7.1 hereof is not paid in full by the Company within sixty days after a written claim has been received by the Company, except in the case of a claim for an Advancement of Expenses, in which case the applicable period shall be twenty days, the Indemnitee may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Company to recover the unpaid amount of the claim.  If successful in whole or in part in any such suit, or in a suit brought by the Company to recover an Advancement of Expenses pursuant to the terms of an Undertaking, the Indemnitee shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting or defending such suit to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.  In (i) any suit brought by the Indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder (but not in a suit brought by the Indemnitee to enforce a right to an Advancement of Expenses) it shall be a defense that, and (ii) in any suit by the Company to recover an Advancement of Expenses pursuant to the terms of an Undertaking the Company shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a Final Adjudication that, the Indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 145 of the General Corporation Law. Neither the failure of the Company (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such suit that indemnification of the Indemnitee is proper in the circumstances because the Indemnitee has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 145 of the General Corporation Law, nor an actual determination by the Company (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) that the Indemnitee has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall create a presumption that the Indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct or, in the case of such a suit brought by the Indemnitee, be a defense to such suit.  In any suit brought by the Indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification or to an Advancement of Expenses hereunder, or by the Company to recover an Advancement of Expenses pursuant to the terms of an Undertaking, the burden of proving that the Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such Advancement of Expenses, under this Article 7 or otherwise shall be on the Company.

 

7.3         Non-Exclusivity of Rights.  The rights to indemnification and to the Advancement of Expenses conferred in this Article 7 shall not be exclusive of any other right that any person may have or hereafter acquire under any law, the Company’s Certificate or Incorporation, these by-laws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

 

7.4         Insurance.  The Company may maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the Company or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Company would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under this Article 7 or under the General Corporation Law.

 

7.5         Indemnification of Employees and Agents of the Company.  The Company may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, grant rights to indemnification, and to the Advancement of Expenses, to any employee or agent of the Company to the fullest extent of the provisions of this Article 7 with respect to the indemnification and Advancement of Expenses of directors and officers of the Company.

 

7.6         Amendment or Repeal.  Any repeal or modification of the foregoing provisions of this Article VII shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any Indemnitee in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to the time of such repeal or modification.

 

Article VIII.  — AMENDMENTS.

 

8.1         AMENDMENTS.  Subject always to any limitations imposed by the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation, these By-Laws may be altered, amended, or repealed, or new By-Laws may be adopted, only by (i) the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the outstanding voting stock of the Company, provided, that the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock of the Company shall be required for any such alteration, amendment, repeal, or adoption that would affect or be inconsistent with the provisions of Sections 2.11, 2.12, and this Section 8.1 (in each case, in addition to any separate class vote that may be required pursuant to the terms of any then outstanding preferred stock of the Company), or (ii) by resolution of the Board of Directors duly adopted by not less than a majority of the directors then constituting the full Board of Directors.

[As Filed: 06/22/2009]